Select sample records: 1 - 20 21 - 40 41 - 60 61 - 80 81 - - Latin America JOL. Province of Salamanca RESULTS: Water from water pipes, fountains, springs, wells, rivers, streams and lakes in the province of Salamanca were studied, analyzing the lead, cadmium, zinc and arsenic c mas ontents of samples using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. No major differences were observed in the degree of contamination by the four elements between the four provincial district areas. Levels of contamination by the four elements were compared for water from the water supply, and samples from wells, fountains, springs and surface water, showing similar contents of the elements studied. Scientific Electronic Library Online Spanish.
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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology pp Cite as. Lead is a very toxic environmental pollutant that affects people living or working in contaminated areas or ingesting this element.
Since the beginning of lead use, it has left evidence of lead poisoning with dramatic effects on the destiny of ancient civilizations. It was recently proposed that this toxicity can also contribute to the decline of current societies through lead-induced impairment of intelligence, increased tendency to abuse of drugs, psychological and behavioral changes, and increase in delinquent behavior.
The effects of chronic exposure to lead in adolescents or adults may be reversed, at least in part, after a decrease in the blood lead levels. In contrast, in children, especially at earlier ages, the effects are irreversible, may persist through life, and some of them may be induced by the mechanism of imprinting.
Exposure to lead during the perinatal period of life may occur in mothers previously exposed to the metal, presenting increased concentration of lead in bones; fetuses and newborns are most vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead because the damage persists throughout life.
The various sources of lead exposure in Chile as well as the evolution of regulations and mitigation measures are reviewed. The highest content of lead in paints was not in those bearing Chilean trademark names, but from a foreign trademark with formulas licensed to produce in Chile, although the same products in the country of origin U.
From on, new legislation regulated lead content in paints. Formerly, the widest source of lead contamination in Chile was the use of leaded gasoline, mainly in greatly populated cities. There has been a progressive decrease in lead content in leaded gasoline, which was banned in April Lead pollution still persists in highly populated cities as city soil, home soil, and as soil contamination near highways.
Several other clusters of smaller magnitude are frequently caused by the widespread practice of battery repair and recovery by small enterprises or as a familial productive activity, affecting all the family group and occasionally persons living in the vicinity.
Two special cases of very important environmental contamination occurred, affecting the population of two major cities.
The most dramatic case was the storage of powdered lead mineral concentrates at the ports or the railroad terminals within the cities of Arica and Antofagasta, where it usually remained until shipped to other countries. Lead from this source is the most relevant source of exposure in the cities of Arica and Antofagasta. Another source of lead, which affected the population of Arica, originated from toxic wastes imported by Promel from the Swedish company Boliden Metal, stored without protection in Arica suburbs, where a few years later new dwellings were constructed and residents were exposed for more than 10 years.
Occupational exposure frequently occurs in painters, welders, and mining or smelting workers. Various degrees of food lead contamination may increase exposure to the metal.
Vegetables grown in or near highly populated areas, lead pipes in old dwellings or copper pipes welded with lead, and formerly lead from canned food, especially those that had been accidentally deformed or were opened and the food stored in those cans. Little information exists on lead content in soil. There are sites where lead concentrations are increased from anthropogenic sources. In regions known to have abundant lead minerals, soil is not contaminated in the vicinity of rivers, suggesting that raw lead minerals do not dissolve in water and do not affect the soil.
Mutat Res — PubMed Google Scholar. Google Scholar. Banks EC, Ferretti LE, Shucard DW Effects of low level lead exposure on cognitive function in children: a review of behavioral, neuropsychological and biological evidence. Neurotoxicology — Br J Ind Med — An International Assessment. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp — Am J Dis Child — Application to workers exposed to lead. Rev Chil Pediatr — Environ Res —6. N, Ginebra. Environ Health Perspect — Csaba G Phylogeny and ontogeny of hormone receptors: the selection theory of receptor formation and hormonal imprinting.
Biol Rev — Csaba G, Inczefi-Gonda A, Dobozy O Hormonal imprinting by steroids: a single neonatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or allylestrenol gives a rise to a lasting decrease in the number of rat uterine receptors.
Acta Physiol Hung — Lewis, Chelsea, MI, pp — Environ Physiol Biochem — Ministry of Health, Republic of Chile. Ministry of Health, Republic of Chile, art Environ Res — Gilfillan SC Lead poisoning and the fall of Rome.
J Occup Med — Am J Public Health — Arch Environ Health — Koller LD The immunotoxic effects of lead in lead-exposed laboratory animals. Ann NY Acad Sci — Fundam Appl Toxicol — Life Sci — Am J Clin Nutr — Ministry of Health, Chile. N Engl J Med — JAMA — Horwood, Chicester, pp — J Clin Pathol — Toxicol Appl Pharmacol — Ruthllant J, Garreaud R Meteorological air pollution potential for Santiago, Chile: towards an objective episode forecasting.
Environ Monit Assess — Schwartz J, Otto D Lead and minor hearing impairment. Pediatrics — Plomo en Sangre. J Cardiovasc Risk 1: 87— Tchernitchin AN, Tchernitchin N Imprinting of paths of heterodifferentiation by prenatal or neonatal exposure to hormones, pharmaceuticals, pollutants and other agents or conditions.
Med Sci Res — CDS Chile — Informe de la Sociedad Civil. Servimpress, Santiago, Chile, pp 45— Bull Environ Contam Toxicol — Acta Biol Hung — Environ Toxicol — Scand J Work Environ Health — Volume 1, Addendum: Relationship of blood pressure to lead exposure.
Waldron HA Lead poisoning in the ancient world. Med Hist — A study of 37 elements. Evidence for the effects of cadmium, lead, and zinc on fetal growth and for smoking as a source of cadmium. Int J Biosoc Res — Am J Med Arch Intern Med — Winder C Lead, reproduction and development. Santiago Chile 2. Personalised recommendations. Cite chapter How to cite? ENW EndNote. Buy options.
Aumento de conflictos socioambientales 24 1. Factores desencadenantes de la resistencia 30 1. La conciencia del impacto negativo en la salud o la vida 31 1. El factor internacional 43 1. La pelea de los medios 49 1.
Human Exposure to Lead in Chile
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology pp Cite as. Lead is a very toxic environmental pollutant that affects people living or working in contaminated areas or ingesting this element. Since the beginning of lead use, it has left evidence of lead poisoning with dramatic effects on the destiny of ancient civilizations. It was recently proposed that this toxicity can also contribute to the decline of current societies through lead-induced impairment of intelligence, increased tendency to abuse of drugs, psychological and behavioral changes, and increase in delinquent behavior. The effects of chronic exposure to lead in adolescents or adults may be reversed, at least in part, after a decrease in the blood lead levels. In contrast, in children, especially at earlier ages, the effects are irreversible, may persist through life, and some of them may be induced by the mechanism of imprinting.
Resultados en Noticias 4 Multimedia. Ordenar por: Relevancia Fecha. The undersecretary stated that the woman's organs "are so affected, so inflamed by the virus that they practically don't work". Vega also specified that the woman's husband and two sons are receiving treatment, as they too have symptoms of the virus.
Independencia , Santiago, Chile. Arica, Chile. One Gustave L. Between , people living in Arica were involuntarily exposed to metal-containing waste stored in the urban area. The study aims to determine whether children who lived near the waste disposal site during early childhood experienced negative effects on their cognitive development. The cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The exposure variable was defined by the year of birth in three categories: 1 Pre-remediation born before ; 2 During-remediation born between ; and 3 Post-remediation born after