Alpinia calcarata Roscoe Family: Zingiberaceae , is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant.
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Alpinia calcarata Roscoe Family: Zingiberaceae , is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated.
Alpinia calcarata Roscoe Zingiberaceae is a rhizomatous plant widely used as systemic medicinal sources in Sri Lanka. Terminal densed flowers are found in panicles 8. Different parts of Alpinia calcarata. The most important part of A. The decoction of A.
Roots, rhizomes and leaves of A. The two bis-labdanic diterpenoids showed cytotoxic activity against human KB cells in vitro. This review presents very comprehensively the chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of A.
Rhizomes of this herb are frequently used as traditional remedies for cough, bronchitis, respiratory ailments, asthma, arthritis and diabetics in Sri Lanka. It is usually cultivated in Sri Lankan village gardens for medicinal purposes. Arambewela and co-workers a reported that the major constituents in the essential oils of root, rhizome and leaves of A.
Numbers of benzenoids such as vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, alkaloids and flavonoids were isolated from Indian A. Novel bis-labdanic diterpenoids such as calcaratarin D and calcaratarin E were isolated and identified from the rhizomes of A. Spectral evidence showed that structurally they were a pair of stereoisomers.
Pungent odoriferous oils were known to be present in A. The yields of oil were: Flower 0. Sixty-two compounds accounting for The oil of flower contained 1,8-cineole The major components of the leaf sheath oil were 1,8-cineole The stem oil contained 1,8-cineole Constituents of Alpinia calcarata rhizome essential oil Arambewela et al.
Constituents of Alpinia calcarata rhizome essential oil Bshuiyan et al. Among the tested extracts, highest antioxidant potential was evident in CEE. Alpinia calcarata has been evidenced with potential antidiabetic effects.
Two different groups of researchers have examined the antidiabetic effects of A. Arambewela et al. Oral glucose tolerance in rats was also improved very markedly with both the hot ethanol extract and hot water extract. The hypoglycemic effect of hot ethanol extract was usually higher than that of the hot water extract. However, in STZ-induced diabetic rats, the hot ethanol extract or the hot water extract failed to reduce blood glucose levels.
Apart from this, glucose absorption from the small intestine was significantly decreased and the glycogen accumulation in both skeletal muscle and liver was increased by the hot ethanol extract. The study concluded the strong antihyperglycemic effects of A. Raj et al. From the results of the above-mentioned studies, it is clear that A.
Further study can only clarify this confusion. Arambewela and co-workers evaluated the gastroprotective effect of hot water extract of A. The hot water extract was also well tolerated: It did not show any overt sign of toxicity, hepatotoxicity in terms of liver function marker such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase or renal toxicity in terms serum urea and creatinine.
The research concluded that hot water extract of A. Methanol and hexane extract of A. Calcarata rhizome essential oil was tested against ten pathogenic bacteria and seven fungi. In terms of antibacterial activity, essential oil showed remarkable activity with zone of inhibition of 15 mm each against E. Three bacteria Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Staphylococcus aureus displayed the inhibition zone of 8 mm each and Bradyrhizobium and Flavobacterium species showed each 7 mm of inhibitory activity against essential oil.
In order to evaluate the antifungal effect of the chemicals present in the essential oil of A. Of these, Aspergillus aculeatus , and Aspergillus awomori exposed the maximum inhibitory zones of 10 mm and 7 mm respectively. Aspergillus niger, Candida albican, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhodotorula species and Trichoderma virideae showed the inhibitory zone of 12mm each.
The overall inhibitory effect of A. The degree of inhibition of the growth of crop pathogens Curvularia spp. A promising antifungal effect of A.
Hot water extract and hot ethanol extract of A. A strong and dose dependent antinociceptive activity was observed in the hot plate and the formalin tests. But no significant antinociceptive effect was recorded in the tail flick test. The antinociceptive effect in hot ethanol extract was slightly higher than that in hot water extract. Finally, the result remarked an opioid mediated antinociceptive effect of A.
Alpinia calcarata Roscoe rhizomes are often used in Sri Lankan traditional medicines as a remedy for bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetics, asthma and arthritis. Generally the anti-arthritic drugs have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. Arawwawala et al. The most potent and pronounced effect was noticed 4 h after carrageenan injection. The findings concluded that the inhibitions of histamine and prostaglandin synthesis are the probable mechanisms by which A.
The study has ascertained the previous report of Sharma and Singh on the traditional uses of A. Plant extracts with known effects on insects could be useful as complementary or alternative treatments to the classical chemical originated insecticides.
Commonly, insects inhale, absorbe or ingest essential oil via skin. Thus, these oils may show repellant as well as toxic effects on insects. The electrophysical responses of the A.
In the behavioral bioassay, the essential oil elicited significantly higher repellant properties in P. Aphrodisiac action of A. Fertility was determined in a separate group with the highest dose using a noncompetitive copulation test. Sexual behavior study noted that the hot water extract of A. Moreover, the counts for rats mounting and intromitting, and the latencies for mounting and intromission were inhibited. These observations collectively noticed a strong aphrodisiac action of A.
However, a high dose of hot water extract slightly impaired the sexual motivation in a partner preference test. In fertility test, profound oligozoospermia was induced although fertility was uninhibited. With the administration of the highest dose of hot water extract, the serum testosterone level was elevated. The number of spontaneous penile erections was also elevated rapidly and markedly. The study concluded that rhizomes of A.
Perveen et al. The toxic effects of host were not very serious to be recovered gradually towards normal within a few days after treatment. This research concluded the potent cytotoxic activity of rhizome ethanol extract of A. The data suggested that the plant could be recommended as a newer and potential source of antitumor agents. Fungal strain of A. Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi of A. Ac-7 showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study.
Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1. Several complementary and alternative uses of A. An effective but unsafe drug, nonetheless, becomes abandoned. Due to many important and effective uses, an evaluation has been made whether A.
Experimental rats did not show any acute or chronic toxic effects as evident from their effects on hepatic function, nephritic function, RBC count, WBC count and hemoglobin concentration. Even no toxicity was noticed on external morphology and wet weights of selected organs. Apart from these, no evidence was appeared to mediate any unacceptable effects on water and food intake, body weight gain, consistency of feces and color of urine by both the extracts. The researchers concluded that hot ethanol extract and hot water extract of A.
Plant polyphenols contribute as valuable secondary metabolites containing a wide spectrum of biological activities. Most of the genes coding for the biosynthetic machineries of plant secondary metabolism are encoded by small families of genes originated via the duplication over evolutionary time. The amino acid residues forming these pockets are located mostly within the second exon.
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Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe Family: Zingiberaceae possess several bioactivities and are used in the traditional medicinal systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the rhizomes of A. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in A. The percentages of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol extractable matter and water extractable matter were of 5. The results obtained from this study can be used to standardize rhizomes of A. The quality control of plant products is a general requirement to be fulfilled if a plant product is to be released to the market as a drug constituent. It is generally accepted that the plant kingdom offers tremendous potential in this field and should be exploited and used as supplement to the purely synthetic drugs on the market.
Alpinia galanga ,  a plant in the ginger family , bears a rhizome used as an herb in Southeast Asian cookery. It is one of four plants known as " galangal ", and is differentiated from the others with the common names lengkuas , greater galangal , and blue ginger. The name "galangal" is probably derived from Persian qulanjan or Arabic khalanjan , which in turn may be an adaptation of Chinese gao liang jiang. Its names in India is derived from the same root, including kulanja in Sanskrit , kulanjan in Hindi , and kholinjan in Urdu. Some of the names have become generalized and are also applied to other species of Alpinia as well as for Curcuma zedoaria.
Alpinia is a genus of flowering plants in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is named for Prospero Alpini , a 17th-century Italian botanist who specialized in exotic plants. These herbs lack true stems, but have pseudostems usually up to about 3 metres 9. The leaves are lance-shaped to oblong. The inflorescence takes the form of a spike, a panicle , or a raceme.