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Deely, Jude P. Over the years, his scholarly research has been praised by think- ers such as Frederick C. Copleston, Michael Novak, Henry B. Veatch, Ralph M. McInerny, and Jude P. Regarding one of Dr. Dough- erty, has said: Given the breadth of his historical survey and his analytic power, he is reminiscent of Hegel at his most sweeping. This is obvi- ously the work of a mature scholar, the reflections of a learned and serious philosopher who shows clearly that ideas have con- sequences, even when they are of the most removed and meta- physically abstract.
One puts it down with the conviction that one has encountered a profound thinker at work. Schall, S. In , Dr. Thomas Aquinas to solving local, national, and interna- tional problems. He who has attained wisdom has reached, not the furthermost, but the most impor- tant goal. He attained wisdom which is, after all, the end of philosophy already as a young professor.
More importantly, he also understood what wisdom is and what it is not, although it might pretend to be. He also understood who is no philosopher, although he might be regarded by some as the father of philosophy.
With both a profound knowledge of the issues and an intellectual acuity, Professor Redpath has rigor- ously sought to revise the received narrative accompanying the estab- lished model for presenting the history of philosophy.
Usque ad sapien- tiam vivere. Qui ad illam pervenit, attigit non longissimum finem, sed maximum. It was not true philosophy, but ideosophy as Maritain called it , neo-sophism, neo-Protagoreanism, or theological neo-Augustinianism that paved the way for medieval nominalism. The second current was philosophy, which originated precisely in opposition to the poetical-sophistic tradition in order to find a place for reason which, beginning with sensory experience, is able to inter- pret reality realism by appealing to truth.
That truth is measured by reality, not by imagination or ideas. Its ambition aims at resolving the key problems for philosophy and metaphysics that are already indi- cated in the title, above all the leading problem of solving the problem of the One and the Many.
Its leading figures included the Rev. Mieczys aw A. Kr piec, author of numerous works, some of which have been translated into English e. John Paul II. Redpath with this issue of Studia Gilson- iana, dedicated to his intellectual and organizational achievements. Those achievements have an international scope, reaching ever-broader academic, pedagogical, and popular circles. Philosophy is a discipline too important to be absent from the civilizational struggle taking place in the contemporary world, and there is nothing more dangerous than philosophy amputated from reality and truth.
Redpath is faithful to a philosophy grounded in reality and truth and defends it conscien- tiously. He is committed to it unreservedly but not alone, because of his growing group of students and friends of which we, with pride and joy, include ourselves. Delfino: Redpath on the Nature of Philosophy……… Thomas Aquinas, Dramatist? The Greek Beginnings……. John Paul II……………………………. Zdybicka, U. It is not only a question of whether Saint Augustine directly influenced certain aspects regarding his understanding of the act of faith that matured in John H.
In him too the great unity of knowledge, grounded in the thought of the Bible, was both confirmed and sustained by a depth of speculative thinking. The synthesis devised by Saint Augustine remained for centuries the most exalted form of philosophical and theological speculation known to the West.
From a total of twenty-two notes in this latter document, Saint Augustine is cited no fewer than four times, the rest being all citations from the Magisterium or the Bible. Auctoritas and ratio in De vera religione From amongst the many writings to which Porta fidei refers, we shall focus particularly here on the treatise De vera religione. In doing so, we shall attempt to demonstrate the parallels that exist between the line of argument contained in this treatise with regard to auctoritas and ratio and several significant passages in the work of the English cardi- nal.
Saint Augustine wrote De vera religione in around the year , dedicating the treatise to his friend Romanianus, inviting him to follow 2 Benedict XVI, Porta fidei , 7 www. It is more certain than all human knowledge because it is founded on the very word of God who cannot lie.
Auctoritas and Ratio 19 the path that he himself had taken by being baptised and entering into the bosom of the Catholic Church. As Augustine himself had helped to draw Romanianus into Manichaeism some fifteen years earlier, the tone of the work—which was written ten years before the Confessions—at times takes that of one who seeks to justify his own spiritual evolution at the same time as he attempts to dispel any confused ideas that his friend might harbor with regard to the true content and demands of the Catholic faith.
In his personal exercise of intellectual searching, Saint Augustine is at great pains to distinguish between that which corresponds to a fleetingly held false certainty and that which corresponds to a firm cer- tainty supported by the authority of the Church. To this end, he does not hesitate to describe his own personal journey as an example of how auctoritas and ratio are present in this search: Ego itaque diu multumque considerans quales oblatrantes, et quales quaerentes expertus sim, vel qualis ipse, sive cum latra- rem, sive cum quaererem, fuerim; hoc modo mihi utendum puta- vi.
Quae vera esse perspexeris, tene, et Ecclesiae catholicae tri- bue; quae falsa, respue, et mihi qui homo sum ignosce; quae du- bia, crede, donec aut respuenda esse, aut vera esse, aut semper credenda esse, vel ratio doceat, vel praecipiat auctoritas.
The italics are ours. In both cases, these are non- exclusive circumstances. We can deduce, therefore, from this passage from De vera religione, that there cannot exist a real incompatibility between auctoritas and ratio. In an earlier passage, Saint Augustine judges the simultaneous difference and complementary relationship between auctoritas and ratio as reflecting the admirable beauty with which God has ordered our faculties: Quamobrem ipsa quoque animae medicina, quae divina provi- dentia et ineffabili beneficentia geritur, gradatim distincteque pulcherrima est.
Distribuitur enim in auctoritatem atque ra- tionem. Auctoritas fidem flagitat, et rationi praeparat hominem. Ratio ad intellectum cognitionemque perducit. Quamquam neque auctoritatem ratio penitus deserit, cum consideratur cui sit cre- dendum: et certe summa est ipsius iam cognitae atque perspicuae veritatis auctoritas.
On the contrary, authority prepares man for reason auctoritas. And it is reason that leads to knowledge ratio ad intellectum cogni- tionemque perducit. Were faith, by some impossible means, to be ex- ercised absolutely in the absence of reason, it would have no intelligible object, and we would not know what we believe in. In fact, we would believe in nothing. Moreover, ratio acts by indicating, using various means, who we should consider auctoritas, who we should believe in, cui credere.
Of course, ratio operates through and for auctoritas by developing our understanding of the dogma, that is to say, the theology 5 In this respect, we should remember that, when Augustine wrote this treatise, he had not yet even been ordained as a priest. Auctoritas and Ratio 21 itself. In its unfolding, ratio comes to know and understand a truth whose sum or synthesis summa is auctoritas. In this way, no one is excluded from the saving truths due to any difficulties that may be en- tailed in the exercise of ratio.
Moreover, within these difficulties, ratio, we might say, comes up against auctoritas even unintentionally, by revealing the inexorable need to believe, in a process that at all times unfolds in an analogous way to that of natural knowledge: Sed quia in temporalia devenimus, et eorum amore ab aeternis impedimur, quaedam temporalis medicina, quae non scientes, sed credentes ad salutem vocat, non naturae et excellentia, sed ipsius temporis ordine prior est.
Nam in quem locum quisque ceciderit, ibi debet incumbere ut surgat. Ergo ipsis carnalibus formis, qui- bus detinemur, nitendum est, ad eas cognoscendas quas caro non nuntiat.
Eas enim carnales voco, quae per carnem sentiri queunt, id est per oculos, per aures, ceterosque corporis sensus. His ergo carnalibus vel corporalibus formis inhaerere amore pueros neces- se est; adolescentes vero prope necesse est; hinc iam procedente aetate non est necesse. In order to know what God ordained in the past and has prepared for the future of all humanity, we need to know, first, which people to ask or what books to seek. The Church shows us a continuity between the faith that spread quickly amongst the first Christians thanks to the miracles and the faith that has spread amongst the following generations due not to the continuation of the miracles, but to the very founding and diffusion of the Church throughout the world: Sed accepimus, maiores nostros eo gradu fidei, quo a temporali- bus ad aeterna conscenditur, visibilia miracula non enim aliter poterant secutos esse: per quos id actum est, ut necessaria non essent posteris.
Cum enim Ecclesia catholica per totum orbem 7 Id. Amongst these circumstances, what stands out is the successful call for unity and exclusivity in auctoritas made by the Catholic Church: Sicut enim in ipsa rerum natura maior est auctoritas unius ad unum omnia redigentis, nec in genere humano multitudinis ulla potentia est nisi consentientis, id est unum sentientis: ita in re- ligione qui ad unum vocant, eorum maior et fide dignior esse de- bet auctoritas.
He describes this in one of the best-known passages in the Apologia pro vita sua, in the chapter devoted to the — period. In August , when the two were discussing an article pub- lished by Nicholas Wiseman—who would go on to become Archbishop 8 Id. They gave a cogency to the Article, which had escaped me at first. They de- cided ecclesiastical questions on a simpler rule than that of An- tiquity; nay, St.
Augustine was one of the prime oracles of An- tiquity; here then Antiquity was deciding against itself. What a light was hereby thrown upon every controversy in the Church! New- man had always believed in the authority of the Scripture and in the authority of the original Church, especially in the authority of the Fa- thers of the Church when they interpret the Scripture in the same way.
Newman, Apologia pro vita sua , — www. The Church alone has authority to say what place John Henry Cardinal Newman will later on occupy in the memory of the faithful, but it is not too early to say that, owing to him, the great theological style of the Fathers has been wor- thily revived in the nineteen century.
The method of demonstration followed by New- man is characteristic in this respect.
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