The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Lupi and Jucker have investigated the susceptibility of commercial cultivars of Pelargonium in northern Italy.
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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Lupi and Jucker have investigated the susceptibility of commercial cultivars of Pelargonium in northern Italy. Little is known about the biology of C.
It obviously did not cause significant enough losses in its indigenous area, southern Africa, to justify specific research. Favilli and Manganelli and Trematerra and Parenzan have studied the life history of the pest in Italy. The newly hatched larvae move into a flower bud by piercing a hole through the sepals.
They remain concealed in the flower buds and feed on the flower tissue, where they produce a cavity as a result of their feeding. On reaching the third instar, the larvae leave the flower bud by initiating a gallery into the stem. At lower temperatures, development is slower and it is assumed that the pest cannot overwinter in colder regions. Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Baufeld P, Pest risk analysis of Cacyreus marshalli Butler Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae from a phytosanitary point of view. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 45 12 Bella S, Invasive insect pests and their associated parasitoids on ornamental urban plants on Corfu island - Phytoliriomyza jacarandae Steyskal and Spencer Diptera, Agromyzidae a new record in Greece.
Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 7 2 Cacyreus marshalli. Life history of the South African lycaenid butterflies. Cape Town, South Africa: Purnell, Eitschberger U, Stamer P, Cacyreus marshalli, a new species of butterfly for the fauna of Europe? Atalanta, EPPO, PQR database. Favilli L, Manganelli G, Fuentes Garcia FJ, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, , arrives in Portugal.
Shilap, Revista de Lepidopterologia, 25 99 Germain JF, Cacyreus marshalli, a new pest of pelargonium. Pelargonium perforating butterfly: hope comes from Spain.
Lien Horticole 22 juin , No. Holloway J, Geranium bronze-first record of British sighting. News, Langourov, M. New data on the expansion of the Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, with some biological notes.
Supplementum 9 , Leraut P, Suplement a Alexanor. Paris, France: Alexanor. Lindeborg M, Remarkable records of Macrolepidoptera in Sweden Lupi D, Jucker C, The butterfly Cacyreus marshalli in northern Italy, and susceptibility of commercial cultivars of Pelargonium. In: Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, held at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany, June [ed.
Marchetti L, Togliani A, Fighting the lepidopter that is devastating geraniums. Contro il lepidottero che devasta i gerani. Colture Protette, 35 10 , Marko K, Verovnik R, First record of Cacyreus marshalli Lycaenidae from the Balkan Peninsula.
Nota Lepidopterologica, 32 1 Report of the geranium bronze butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli for mainland Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 4 2 Maso A, Sarto i Monteys V, A butterfly threatens European pelargoniums. Cinecia y Tecnologia 23 Noviembre Parker R, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae newly recorded for Corfu, with notes on other butterflies on the island in September Entomologist's Gazette, 61 1 Sammut P, Sarto i Monteys V, Spread of the southern African lycaenid butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, , Lep.
Sarto i Monteys V, Gabarra R, An Hymenoptera parasitoid of geranium bronze. Catalunya rural il Agraria, Sarto i Monteys V, Maso A, Confirmation of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae as a new species for the European fauna. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 17 1 Remarks on the biology of a lycaenid butterfly, pest of pelargoniums, new to Europe Lycaenidae.
First record of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, Lycaenidae from Turkey. Nota Lepidopterologica, 36 2 Tarrier M, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, , new species for France, Portugal and Morocco. Alexanor, 20 3 Trematerra P, Parenzan P, Cacyreus marshalli, a butterfly spreading rapidly on geraniums.
Cacyreus marshalli, lepidottero in rapida diffusione sui gerani. Informatore Agrario, 59 31 Cacyreus marshalli, a South African Lepidoptera pest of cranesbill in Italia].
Informatore Fitopatologico, Troukens W, Cacyreus marshalli found in Belgium. Phega, Hellenic Plant Protection Journal. Map CABI, Undated a. EPPO Global database. In: Revista de Lepidopterologia, 25 99 Shilap. In: Butt. News, 67 Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. Entomologisk Tidskrift. Nota Lepidopterologica. NPPO of the Netherlands,
The geranium bronze butterfly is native to South Africa. The butterfly was first introduced to Europe in the late 20th century, where it has quickly spread to many southern and eastern European regions. Since its introduction to Europe, the geranium bronze butterfly has become a pest to cultivated Pelargonium and Geranium plant species. Currently, efforts are being made to contain the spread of the geranium bronze butterflies as well as to determine the most effective pesticide for the species. The underside is a grey-brown with darker bands interlaced with white, creating an intricate pattern.
This species is a native of Southern Africa. It arrived in Europe in the early s and has since spread around the western Mediterranean where it can be easily found and is often common in towns and villages. It is spreading eastwards too, although more slowly, with records from south Italy, Greece etc. It is occasional in northern Europe UK, Holland etc where it is likely to arrive by importation of the larval foodplant, decorative geraniums. The underside markings are quite unlike any other European butterfly - brown ground colour with white blotches and lines. The strongly chequered fringes and a long tail on the hindwing are also distinctive. Spreading eastwards into Italy and Greece etc.