Populism is an anti-establishment, anti-elite ideology and political strategy. Populism viewed as a political strategy focuses on its agency, or the ability of populist movements to instrumentally appeal to followers, to maintain a direct relationship between the leader and the followers, and to exploit existing institutional weaknesses. Populists target the establishment and the elites selectively. Populists can become the elite.
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Populism is an anti-establishment, anti-elite ideology and political strategy. Populism viewed as a political strategy focuses on its agency, or the ability of populist movements to instrumentally appeal to followers, to maintain a direct relationship between the leader and the followers, and to exploit existing institutional weaknesses. Populists target the establishment and the elites selectively.
Populists can become the elite. Yet populist politicians re elected to office continue to use anti-elite appeals to delegitimize opponents, even after they have come to represent the very establishment they had attacked in the past. Scholarship on populism has grown exponentially in recent years. In Europe, it is rooted in the study of the radical right, which emphasizes exclusionary identity-driven politics. The rise of populism is often viewed as a consequence of an economic crisis or socioeconomic changes in general.
Populist critique also targets the institutional underpinnings of liberal democracy. Populists seek to strengthen majoritarian elements of democracy and undermine minority protections. Populist leaders seek power, and the presence of populist parties in the electoral arena, parliament, government, or presidency reshapes political agendas.
Media is a crucial tool of communication used by populist leaders to gain power and to stay in power. In the West, populism is mostly exclusionary. In the Global South, and especially in Latin America, it is often inclusionary, as it broadens the scope of the people to the previously politically excluded poor and indigenous communities Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser , cited under General Overviews.
Regionally, this bibliography focuses on populism in Europe and Latin America, but it also includes the United States and other countries Stockemer , under General Overviews. Rovira Kaltwasser, et al. Another comprehensive review is Rydgren , an all-encompassing study at the intersection of populism and radical-right mobilization.
Urbinati , Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser , and Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser are analytical review articles that summarize the literature. Urbinati and Taggart discuss the relationship between populism and democracy. Stockemer offers a comparative view. Team Populism at Brigham Young University assembles an array of scholars and resources on populism. Mudde, Cas, and Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser.
DOI: They identify two regional subtypes: exclusionary populism in Europe, and inclusionary populism in Latin America. Mudde and Rovira Kaltwasser discuss advantages of the so-called ideational approach to the comparative study of populism, and outline four avenues of future research. Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristobal, Paul A. The Oxford Handbook of Populism. The handbook provides state of the art of the scholarship on populism. It lays out the cumulated knowledge on populism, but also the ongoing discussions and research gaps on this topic.
It is divided into four sections, covering conceptual approaches, populist forces, interaction between populism and various issues, and normative debates on populism. Rydgren, Jens, ed. The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. New York: Oxford University Press, The handbook focuses on how the radical right manifests itself as movements rather than parties, and includes a number of case studies both in Europe and beyond.
The chapters cover concepts and definitions; ideologies and discourses; and a range of contemporary issues, including religion, globalization, gender, activism, and case studies. Stockemer, Daniel, ed. Populism around the World: A Comparative Perspective. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature, The edited book provides a global overview of populist actors and strategies around the globe from a comparative perspective.
It shows how parties from both the radical left and right use a populist discourse. Taggart, Paul. Populism: Concepts in the Social Sciences. Philadelphia: Open University Press, Taggart focuses on the problems of populism and how it relates to democracy, particularly to representative politics. Team Populism. Team Populism brings together renowned scholars from Europe and the Americas to study the causes and consequences of populism.
Urbinati, Nadia. Urbinati illustrates the context-based character of populism and how its cyclical appearances reflect the forms of representative government. It reviews contemporary interpretations of populism and sketches the main characteristics of populism in power.
It also explains how populism transforms the fundamentals of democracy. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page.
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General Overviews Rovira Kaltwasser, et al. How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Jump to Other Articles:. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Powered by: PubFactory.
Margaret Canovan — was an English political theorist. She became a professor in the Politics Department at Lancaster University not long after its inception, later moving to Keele University where she remained until her retirement in Canovan published several books but is perhaps best known for her work on Hannah Arendt , particularly after accessing Arendt's unpublished papers in the late s. Her book Hannah Arendt: A Reinterpretation of Her Political Thought was described by Gordon Tolle in The Review of Politics as "an excellent and comprehensive explanation of how Arendt's political theory emerges out of her early struggle to understand the new phenomenon of totalitarianism". Her later work on nationalism was also received with international acclaim. Steven Engel noted that "Canovan's book distinguishes itself in that its aim is 'to argue that questions of nationhood are not an optional extra for political theory, but should actually be at the heart of the discipline' ".
Populism. By Margaret Canovan. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981. Pp. 351. $17.95.)