About Authors: Vivek P. Chavda Department of Pharmaceutics, B. Introduction Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3, BC. Indigenous cultures such as African and Native American used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine in which herbal therapies were used.
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Voigt, also known as Coccinia indica belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is extensively used in traditional medicine for the treatment of leprosy, jaundice, asthma, bronchitis, skin eruptions, burns, tongue sores, earache, indigestion, eye infections, nausea, insect bites, and fever.
Phytochemical studies reveal the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose. Studies on the plant extract particularly the leaf extract shows that it possesses antihyperglycemic, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, anti-hepatotoxic and anti-insecticidal activities. Among these, the plant's activity against diabetes has been extensively investigated.
Current studies on its antioxidant activity reveal its potential in cancer therapy. The plant leaf extract also shows significant activity chemoprotective effect against cyclophosphamide, commonly used in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
A review of the various studies on the plant is provided to understand its medicinal properties. Coccinia indica , Phytochemical, Anti-hepatotoxic, Anti-hyperlipidemic, Anti-insecticidal, Antioxidant.
Hence, the medicinal properties of various plants are being studied for their effect on several diseases and disorders. One of the plants on which comprehensive studies have been made is Coccinia grandis. Coccinia grandis Linn. Voigt, commonly called the ivy gourd, is a perennial herb or a vine found extensively from Africa to Asia.
It is also known as Coccinia indica. The plant belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. The fruits, roots, the stem of this plant were used traditionally to treat diseases like leprosy, jaundice, asthma, bronchitis, skin eruptions, burns, tongue sores, earache, indigestion, eye infections, nausea, insect bites, and fever.
The tender green fruits were cooked and eaten, sometimes also raw. The leaves of this plant were used to treat diabetes 1, 2. The fruits of the plant were used in the treatment of diabetes 3. The studies showed that the leaves of the plant possess antioxidant properties 4, 5 , and produce an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect in rats 6.
Several biochemical studies have been performed to reveal the medicinal uses of the plant parts. Phytochemical Analysis: Phytochemical analysis of hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Coccinia grandis indicated the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids.
The presence of saponins, flavonoids, and polyphenols may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves 7. Elemental analysis of the ash of the plant parts revealed the presence of copper Cu , manganese Mn and zinc Zn at 0. Fruits and leaves of the plant were found to be made of arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. Studies revealed that leaves also contain rhamnose 9. Antioxidant Activity: Antioxidants are substances which are capable of scavenging free radicals which damage biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA The effect of the leaf extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was studied.
In plasma, the extract exhibited a decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, vitamin E and ceruloplasmin and increase in plasma vitamin C and reduced glutathione 5. The antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis was studied using a hydroethanolic extract of the dried powdered leaves. The hydroethanolic extract was then re-extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate leaving behind the residue 7.
The fractions obtained were checked for the free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH assay The IC 50 values were compared with the standard, ascorbic acid.
All the fractions showed hydrogen donor activity. The chloroform fraction IC 50 0. In this case, the residual fractions showed the highest reducing power. The other fractions petroleum-ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed significant reducing activity 7. Hydroxyl scavenging activity was evaluated by the measure of the inhibitory activity of the fractions towards the degradation of deoxyribose by the hydroxyl radicals produced as a result of Fenton reaction 14, The test suggested that all the fractions showed scavenging activity.
Petroleum-ether showed the highest activity with IC 50 value of 0. The hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay 16 suggested that all the fractions exhibit H 2 O 2 scavenging activity. Petroleum-ether fraction showed the maximum activity of with IC 50 0. IC 50 values of residue, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions are 0. Nitric acid scavenging activity was also examined 17 which reported the highest scavenging activity for the chloroform fraction IC 50 0.
The other fractions also exhibited good activity. In the peroxyl radical scavenging activity which was investigated by thiocyanate method 18, petroleum-ether IC 50 0. At high concentrations ethyl acetate IC 50 0. Further testing by phosphomolybdate method 19 revealed that chloroform fraction had the maximum antioxidant capacity 7.
All the fractions of the leaves showed ferrous ion chelating action with chloroform fraction IC 50 0. Petroleum-ether IC 50 0. The fractions were for tested for pro-oxidant activities by bleomycin dependent DNA damage The test revealed that fractions do not possess pro-oxidant activity 7. Among the hydroethanolic extracts obtained petroleum-ether is reported to contain the highest phenolic and flavonoid content.
The high phenolic and flavonoid content of the fractions contribute to their antioxidant activity 21, 7. In - vivo studies are yet to be performed to test the antioxidant activity of Coccinia grandis. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity: Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. It is responsible for converting hypoxanthine to xanthine and then xanthine to uric acid. Increased activity of this enzyme causes hyperuricemia resulting in the deposition of urate monohydrate crystals in joints and kidneys.
The kidney stone was found to be associated with a condition known as Gout The methanoic, aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of the leaves of Coccinia grandis showed inhibitory activity towards Xanthine oxidase in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies The IC 50 values for the aqueous, hydromechanics and methanolic extracts were The standard drug used for inhibitory activity showed In-vivo studies were carried out in Swiss albino mice.
LD 50 did not reveal any acute toxicity at this level. Methanoic extract of Coccina grandis lowered the serum urate level from Antihyperlipidemic Activity: Hyperlipidemia refers to a group of disorders characterized by the high levels of lipid in the blood plasma. In-vivo studies were carried out in hamsters to study the antihyperlipidemic effect of Coccinia grandis. C 60 polyprenol 1 was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Coccinia grandis.
Golden Syrian hamsters were fed with a high fat diet HFD which resulted in levels of glucose and lipids. Blood was collected from the animals, and the levels of total cholesterol TC , triglyceride TG , high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-C and glucose Gly were determined. Chloroform fraction reduced lipid levels. The compound polyprenol showed the maximum lipid lowing activity.
HPLC fingerprinting of the chloroform fraction containing polyprenol showed that polyprenol constitutes about 0. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activity: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activity of the aqueous leaf extract was studied in-viv o using Wistar rats and Swiss mice.
In the anti-inflammatory study, the aqueous extracts were administered at various doses pre and post the inducement of paw edema on the right hind paw using carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined from the inhibition of the edema.
It has been postulated that the anti-inflammatory activity may be due to the release of histamines after administration with extract 6. For the analgesic activity study, Tail flick model was used in mice, and the mice were administered with different doses of the extract. The study revealed that the extract showed significant analgesic activity at higher doses although not equivalent to morphine 6. The rats were then treated with the extract at various doses and the temperatures pre and post the administration of the extract were recorded.
Antimicrobial Activity: Anti-microbial peptides are molecules which are capable of forming pores by attaching and inserting into the microbial cells. These molecules are produced by plants and animals Anti-microbial activity of a protease inhibitor PI obtained from Coccinia grandis was studied.
The PI obtained had a specific activity of The antimicrobial activity of the PI was studied with bacterial and fungal species - Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Penicillium notatum, and Mucor indicus.
Cytotoxicity study with mammalian cells showed no hemolytic activity. But it was found that PI inhibits both trypsin and chymotrypsin. PI had a stoichiometry of with trypsin. Testing with dithiothreitol DTT showed that purified PI showed strong antifungal activity and reduced PI lacked antifungal activity indicating that the disulfide bonds present in PI were responsible for the antifungal activity WHO predicts the disease o the 7 th leading cause of death by the year This chronic disorder occurs due to the decreased production of insulin by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas or inability of the body to utilize the insulin produced.
Low levels of insulin stimulate gluconeogenesis and as a result hepatic glucose concentrations increase. Hence, body fat is used as a source of glucose, and this can result in hypertriglyceridemia and hyper-cholesterolemia Abnormal storage of triglycerides and lipolysis in the liver can result in insulin resistance which can manifest as type 2 diabetes In-vivo studies on female albino rats of Winstar strain were made to determine the effect of Coccinia grandis on the liver marker enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase ALP , aspartate aminotransferase AST , alanine aminotransferase ALT and lactate dehydrogenase LDH in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
The levels of these enzymes were found to be the indicators of tissue damages in the liver. The diabetic-induced rats showed increased levels of the marker enzymes in the liver and serum. Treatment of methanolic extract of leaves of Coccinia grandis revealed that the marker enzymes were restored to near normal levels Their levels indicate the amount of leakage of intracellular hepatic enzymes into the blood.
ABSTRACT: Traditional system of medicine consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Coccinia indica belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a rapidly growing, perennial climber or trailing vine. Traditionally different parts of this plant namely the roots, leaves and fruits are used in folklore medicine for several purposes like jaundice, diabetes, wound healing, ulcers, stomach ache, skin disease, fever, asthma, cough. The leaf and its constituents have been reported to possess anthelmintic activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity, antimicrobial activity, antihyper-glycemic activity, hepatoproetcective activity. This review provides adequate information to develop suitable therapeutics out of these plant parts.
Ivy gourd: declared pest
Jump to navigation Skip to Content. Ivy gourd is also known as scarlet fruited gourd, arakis, ekadala mughad roh, scarlet gourd, tindola, kundree, pepasan, pepino cimarron, little gourd, tendli vegetable. Climbing perennial herb with a tuberous root stock producing annual stems. It is a fast-growing climbing vine that quickly covers nearby plants. Upper surface hairless, lower surface hairy and bearing three to eight glands near attachment of leaf stalk and major vein branching. Margin of the leaf notched. Leaf tip is blunt.
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