He spent his career studying data on collective violence and war with a view toward helping their resolution or elimination. Rummel coined the term democide for murder by government compare genocide , such as the Stalinist purges and Mao's Cultural Revolution. Rummel estimated the total number of people killed by all governments during the twentieth century at million, and he estimated that million were killed by communist regimes from to His figures for Communist regimes are higher than those given by most other scholars, which range from 60 to million. Rummel was the author of twenty-four scholarly books, and published his major results in Understanding Conflict and War —
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He spent his career studying data on collective violence and war with a view toward helping their resolution or elimination. Rummel coined the term democide for murder by government compare genocide , such as the Stalinist purges and Mao's Cultural Revolution.
Rummel estimated the total number of people killed by all governments during the twentieth century at million, and he estimated that million were killed by communist regimes from to His figures for Communist regimes are higher than those given by most other scholars, which range from 60 to million. Rummel was the author of twenty-four scholarly books, and published his major results in Understanding Conflict and War — He spent the next fifteen years refining the underlying theory and testing it empirically on new data, against the empirical results of others, and on case studies.
He summed up his research in Power Kills Extracts, figures, and tables from the books, including his sources and details regarding the calculations, are available online on his website. Rummel also authored Factor Analysis  Understanding and Understanding Correlation  In addition to his extensive research and data analysis, Rummel wrote the Never Again  series of alternative-history novels, in which a secret society sends two lovers armed with fabulous wealth and modern weapons back to with orders to create a peaceful century.
Rudolph Rummel was born in in Cleveland, Ohio to a family of German descent. He received his B. Rummel began his teaching career at Indiana University. In he moved to Yale University , and in returned to the University of Hawaii. He taught there for the rest of his active career. In he retired and became Professor Emeritus of Political Science. He was a member of the advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.
Rummel was the creator of the term democide : "the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide , politicide , and mass murder ".
He has further stated: "I use the civil definition of murder , where someone can be guilty of murder if they are responsible in a reckless and wanton way for the loss of life, as in incarcerating people in camps where they may soon die of malnutrition , unattended disease , and forced labor , or deporting them into wastelands where they may die rapidly from exposure and disease. In his book, Death by Government published in , Rummel estimated that million were killed by communist governments from to These numbers should not be considered factual, Rummel himself as described his figures as "little more than educated guesses  ".
The list of communist countries with more than 1 million estimated victims included the following:. His research concluded that the death toll from democide is far greater than the death toll from war. After studying over 8, reports of government-caused deaths, he estimated that there have been million victims of democide in the 20th century  and that six times as many people have died at the hands of people working for governments than have died in battle.
His later estimates put the death toll of colonialism at ,, He argued that there is a relation between political power and democide. Political mass murder grows increasingly common as political power becomes unconstrained.
At the other end of the scale, where power is diffuse, checked, and balanced, political violence is a rarity. This is a major reason for promoting freedom. Rummel was one of the early researchers on democratic peace theory , after Dean Babst. In addition, it should be "well-established". He stated "enough time has passed since its inception for peace-sufficient democratic procedures to become accepted and democratic culture to settle in.
Around three years seems to be enough for this". The peace is explained thus: "Start with the answer of the philosopher Immanuel Kant to why universalizing republics democracy was a bad word for Classical Liberals in his time would create a peaceful world. People would not support and vote for wars in which they and their loved ones could die and lose their property.
But this is only partly correct, for the people can get aroused against nondemocracies and push their leaders toward war, as in the Spanish—American War. A deeper explanation is that where people are free, they create an exchange society of overlapping groups and multiple and crosschecking centers of power. In such a society a culture of negotiation, tolerance, and splitting differences develops. Moreover, free people develop an in-group orientation toward other such societies, a feeling of shared norms and ideals that militates against violence toward other free societies" .
According to Rummel, democide requires governmental intention. But he was also interested in analyzing the effects of regimes that unintentionally, yet culpably, cause the deaths of their citizens through negligence , incompetence or sheer indifference. An example is a regime in which corruption has become so pervasive and destructive of a people's welfare that it threatens their daily lives and reduces their life expectancy. Rummel termed deaths of citizens under such regimes as mortacide.
He argued that democracies have the fewest of such deaths. Rummel included famine in democide if he deemed it the result of a deliberate policy, as he and most academics have concluded about the Holodomor. He has said that there have been no famines in democracies, deliberate or not. According to Rummel, the continuing increase in the number of democracies worldwide will lead to an end to wars and democide. He believed that goal might be achieved by the midst century. Rummel was a strong supporter of spreading liberal democracy , although he did not support invading another country solely to replace a dictatorship.
He was critical of past American foreign policy: for example, the Philippine War , involvement in the Battle of Peking , and the bombing of civilians during World War II. Bush administration. He argued for an intergovernmental organization of all democracies outside of the United Nations to deal with issues about which the UN cannot or will not act, but particularly to further the promotion of peace, human security, human rights, and democracy—an Alliance of Democracies.
He also argued that there was a leftist bias in some parts of the academic world that selectively focused on problems in nations with high political and economic freedom and ignored much worse problems in other nations.
Related to this, he also criticized the tenure system. The democratic peace theory is now one of the great controversies in political science and one of the main challenges to realism in international relations. More than a hundred different researchers have published multiple articles in this field, according to an incomplete bibliography.
Rummel discussed some claimed exceptions in his FAQ  and he has referred to books by other scholars such as Never at War. There are also various other criticisms as discussed in the democratic peace theory article. Rummel's first work on democratic peace received little attention. His results were incorporated in a "gigantic philosophical scheme" of 33 propositions in a 5-volume work. It was reviewed in as having "immoderate pretensions", and demonstrated Rummel's "unrelenting" economic liberalism and "extreme" views on defense policy.
Nils Petter thought these elements may have distracted readers from Rummel's more conventionally acceptable propositions. Rummel's version of the democratic peace theory has some distinctive features disputed by some other researchers who support the existence and explanatory power of the democratic peace:. Rummel did not always apply his definition of democracy to governments under discussion; nor did he always clarify when he did not. The opening paragraphs of an appendix from his book Power Kills  adopt Michael Doyle's lists of liberal democracies for — and — In , Rummel was given The Lifetime Achievement Award from the Conflict Processes Organized Section of the American Political Science Association for "scholarly contributions that have fundamentally improved the study of conflict processes.
Rummel wrote the Never Again Series of alternative-history novels. According to the series' website,  Never Again is "a what-if, alternative history What if there were a solution to war and genocide? What if a secret society sent back to two lovers, Joy Phim, a gorgeous warrior, and John Banks, a pacifist professor of history, and gave them the incredible wealth and weapons necessary to create a peaceful alternative universe—one that never experienced the horrors of world war, the Holocaust, and the other atrocities of the twentieth century?
And what if, at great personal cost, they succeed too well and create a peaceful world of complacent democracies? In Book 2, the clock is turned back to their arrival in They receive a message from the future of the universe they will create — Islamic fundamentalists have attacked the unarmed democracies with nuclear weapons and enslaved them.
It is now up to these lovers to prevent this horrible future. Rummel had approximately publications in peer-reviewed journals, including:  . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Political scientist from the United States, notable for research on war and conflict resolution. Cleveland , Ohio , U. Kaneohe , Hawaii , U. University of Hawaii B. Main article: Democide. Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved Valentino Cornell University Press. Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation.
Archived from the original on Pioneers of Genocide Studies. Transaction Publishers. Archived from the original on May 19, Archived from the original on November 2, Archived from the original on August 6, Journal of Peace Research.
Archived from the original PDF on Categories : American political writers American male non-fiction writers American historians American political scientists American anti-communists University of Hawaii faculty Yale University faculty Indiana University faculty Northwestern University alumni University of Hawaii alumni births deaths.
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Eliminating democide and war through an alliance of democracies (*)
Rudolph J. Rummel received Ph. He received the Susan Strange Award of the International Studies Association for having intellectually most challenged the field in He has written about two-dozen books and over professional articles. This article, by one of the world's foremost scholars on the relationship of democracy and war, argues that an alliance of democratic states of which there are now about would be the most effective method of eliminating democide genocide and mass murder and war.
Death by Government: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900
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This is R. Rummel's fourth book in a series devoted to genocide and government mass murder, or what he calls democide. He presents the primary results, in tables and figures, as well as a historical sketch of the major cases of democide, those in which one million or more people were killed by a regime. In Death by Government, Rummel does not aim to describe democide itself, but to determine its nature and scope in order to test the theory that democracies are inherently nonviolent. He also writes about areas of suspected genocide: North Korea, Mexico, and feudal Russia. His results clearly and decisively show that democracies commit less democide than other regimes.