Assessing impact of blanket interventions for MAM prevention. Full text: Blanket interventions for MAM prevention Blanket supplementary feeding programming BSFP provide a supplementary food ration often accompanied by a basic medical treatment and prevention package to a vulnerable population for a defined period in a defined geographic location. There is little strong evidence on the impact of BSFP on rates of malnutrition and mortality, and scare guidance on program monitoring and evaluation to improve the implementation of specific programs. Assessing the impact of BSFP has been fraught with difficulty.
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Assessing impact of blanket interventions for MAM prevention. Full text: Blanket interventions for MAM prevention Blanket supplementary feeding programming BSFP provide a supplementary food ration often accompanied by a basic medical treatment and prevention package to a vulnerable population for a defined period in a defined geographic location.
There is little strong evidence on the impact of BSFP on rates of malnutrition and mortality, and scare guidance on program monitoring and evaluation to improve the implementation of specific programs. Assessing the impact of BSFP has been fraught with difficulty. Their isolated impact is difficult, if not often impossible to disentangle from larger care and prevention packages, the objectives of BSFP may vary by context, implementing agency, time and geography.
Various and often multiple co-morbidities among children in the targeted group complicate matters further with respect to impact assessment. This leads to difficulties in generalizing results from one context to another and the need for more complex metrics to guide operational decision-making. Ideally, impact or effectiveness of BSFP should be addressed in a research framework where appropriate and complete data is collected in order to address specific questions.
The gold standard is the conduct of randomized studies including a control group. These studies have been scarce as they may be perceived as either rarely feasible or not ethical or both. However, as generating evidence on impact of BSFP is essential to provide operational guidance, these studies should be encouraged through a diversity of robust, yet creative and pragmatic, methodological approaches.
As a case study, a series of studies conducted over the past decade are reviewed in the same location in Niger highlighting the lessons learned. Diagnostic role of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing orofacial pain and paresthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of CT and MRI in evaluating orofacial pain and paresthesia.
Seventy Whereas CT examinations detected 2 diseases 4. Seven A high percentage of patients, who claimed orofacial pain and paresthesia, have other diseases in their brain, especially in elderly patients, and MRI is more useful than CT for evaluating these patients. Clinical assessment of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders.
Accurate diagnosis of chronic pain disorders of the mouth, jaws, and face is frequently complex. It is common for patients with chronic orofacial pain to consult multiple clinicians and receive ineffective treatment before a correct diagnosis is reached. This problem is a significant public health concern. Clinicians can minimize error by starting the diagnostic procedure with a careful, accurate history and thorough head and neck examination followed by a thoughtfully constructed differential diagnosis.
The possibility that the patient has symptoms of a life-threatening underlying disease rather than a more common dental, sinus, or temporomandibular disorder must always be considered. Published by Elsevier Inc. Quantitative Sensory Testing QST has been used in clinical and experimental settings to establish sensory assessment for different types of pains, and may be a useful tool for the assessment of orofacial pain, but this premise needs to be tested. The aim of the study was to evaluate responses to thermal stimuli between painful and non-painful facial sites in subjects with orofacial pain using QST.
A total of 60 participants 5o females: years; 10 males: years with unilateral orofacial pain were recruited from the Orofacial Pain Clinic at the Pain Management and Research Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The results were compared to the results from the unaffected side of the same patient on the same area and a single t test statistical analysis was performed, where a p value of less than 0.
The Mean Difference for Cold Sensation between the pain side and the non-pain side was 0. The study showed that QST methods using thermal stimuli could be used to evaluate sensory dysfunction in orofacial pain patients using the specific parameters of cool and warm sensation, and cold and hot pain. Assessment of orofacial pain management in a pediatric emergency department and at home after discharge.
An inadequate pain management is common in the emergency department. Our objective was to analyze pain management among children with an orofacial infection or trauma in the emergency department and to assess compliance and satisfaction with analgesia prescribed at discharge. Cross-sectional, observational and analytical study in children attending the emergency department for an orofacial infection or trauma over 2 months.
Pain management in the emergency department, analgesia prescribed at home and, following a call to parents, treatment provided and its adequacy to control pain were registered. In total, patients mean age: 4. Pain assessment was recorded at the triage for 8.
Analgesia was administered to At discharge, no analgesia was prescribed to Pediatricians prescribed scheduled analgesia more frequently than surgeons The most common prescription was as needed, contrary to what is recommended in the guidelines. Analgesic control worked better for trauma injuries than for infections.
Assessment and treatment of MAM in infants aged. Full text: It is estimated that worldwide, 8. Moderate acute malnutrition MAM defined as weight-for-length between -3 and -2 z score affects 4. In this age group there is lack of data on the outcomes of malnutrition, on the use and interpretation of anthropometry and on potential interventions.
The current case definition of acute malnutrition for infants is inferred from results of studies conducted among older children aged 6 to 59 months and is therefore problematic when applied to infants under 6 months. We have been conducting experiments towards establishing appropriate anthropometric criteria for diagnosing acute malnutrition among infants aged less than 6 months. Informed by the properties outlined within the framework of requirement for selecting of an appropriate screening and diagnosis indicator, we set up experiments to assess the intra and inter-observer reliability, accuracy, validity, objectivity and predictive value of using WFLz and the mid-upper arm circumference MUAC among infants below 6 months within community and hospital settings.
Among infants aged below 6 months, the reliability and accuracy of anthropometry performed by rural community health workers CHWs was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland Altman plots. Absolute measures of MUAC, weight and length were more reliably and accurately assessed than calculated indices, especially length based indices. Secondly, among hospitalized dehydrated infants and children, anthropometry was assessed before and after rehydration.
MUAC was less affected by hydration than WFLz and is potentially more suitable for nutritional assessment of acutely ill children. Thirdly, in a survival analysis of longitudinal demographic surveillance system DSS data from the Gambia, the hazards and population attributable risks for post-neonatal infant death were demonstrated.
MUAC at the age of infant vaccination was highly. Brief pain inventory scale: An emerging assessment modality for orofacial pain.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Pain is an emotional experience almost experienced by almost every one of us. Since the pain can neither be seen nor measured, it poses a challenge to the patient as well as the clinician in understanding its complicated nature and the best way of managing it. There is no simple method of pain evaluation due to its subjective nature. However, comprehensive approaches for its evaluation exists, of which most common pain scale used are visual analog scale, Mc-Gills questionnaire, brief pain inventory BPI to name a few.
We have tried to highlight the various advantages of the BPI scale over the other pain scales and to emphasize an improved instrument, which can be used as a promising modality for the assessment of orofacial pain.
Orofacial pain. Full Text Available In the primary care sector, diagnosis and initial management of orofacial pain are often performed by familydoctors and dentists. Knowledge of the different types of orofacial pain and headache disorders is therefor of great importance. The International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 provides an overview of the different types of orofacial pain and will be discussed in this lecture. The main focus will be on trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache and the current research in this field.
Trigeminal Neuralgia TN is defined as a disorder characterized by recurrent, unilateral, brief, electricshock-like pains, abrupt in onset and termination, limited to the distribution of one or more divisions of thetrigeminal nerve and triggered by innocuous stimuli.
Unfortunately, most TN is idiopathic, and the aetiology isnot clear. Both are antiepileptics with well known interactions with other drugs and safety problems.
An overview of the currently available literature on the pharmaceutical management of TN patients is discussed. Cluster headache CH is one of the most painful primary headache disorders. It is characterized by daily or almost daily attacks of unilateral excruciating periorbital pain associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, typically lasting between 15 and minutes if untreated.
Cluster headache is caused by the relaesement of neurotransmitters and vasodilators from the sphenopalatine ganglion SPH. The current treatments for CH attacks are injectable sumatriptan and oxygen inhalation. Both treatments have well known side effects and.
Orofacial Pain and Mastication in Dementia. Orofacial pain is a common condition in the general population. It is likely that this is also the case in older persons with a dementia. However, the assessment of orofacial pain in non-verbal individuals is hampered by the subjective nature of pain, and their limited communicative abilities. To overcome this drawback, several tools have been developed for the assessment of pain based on observations of pain-specific facial activities, body movements, and vocalizations.
Unfortunately, none of the so far developed observational tools have been designed specifically for the assessment of orofacial pain. Besides the assessment of orofacial pain, an important application of this instrument will be the investigation of the probable causal association between impaired chewing and cognitive decline, in which orofacial pain plays a mediating role by its negative influence on chewing ability.
The identification of this negative influence will urge opinion leaders and policy makers to improve the oral health status in older persons with a dementia. Ultimately, pain-free oral functioning may lead to a higher quality of life and might help stabilizing or improving cognition in this frail and vulnerable patient population. Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry in preschool patients with orofacial clefts after neonatal cheiloplasty.
To evaluate facial asymmetry changes in pre-school patients with orofacial clefts after neonatal cheiloplasty and to compare facial asymmetry with age-matched healthy controls.
Three-dimensional 3D facial scans were analyzed using geometric morphometry and multivariate statistics. Geometric morphometry showed positive deviations from perfect symmetry on the right side of the forehead in the intervention groups and the controls.
The UCL groups showed the greatest asymmetric nasolabial area on the cleft-side labia and the contralateral nasal tip. The UCLP group showed, moreover, asymmetry in buccal region due to typical maxillar hypoplasia, which was accentuated in the older group. The BCLP groups showed slightly similar but greater asymmetry than the control groups, except for the philtrum region. Asymmetry of each of the cleft groups significantly differed from the controls.
All rights reserved. Wolfram syndrome: MAMs ' connection? Wolfram syndrome WS is a rare neurodegenerative disease, the main pathological hallmarks of which associate with diabetes, optic atrophy, and deafness.
Other symptoms may be identified in some but not all patients. Prognosis is poor, with death occurring around 35 years of age.
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PubMed Central. Pardo, C. Carnero; de la Vega Cotarelo, R. Martos; Carrillo, R. Mora; Galvin, J. This study provides psychometric information for the Dating Violence Questionnaire DVQ , an instrument developed to assess intimate partner victimization among adolescents and youths. This instrument, an English version of Cuestionario de Violencia de Novios, assesses both frequency and discomfort associated with 8 types of abuse detachment, humiliation, sexual, coercion, physical, gender-based, emotional punishment, and instrumental.