NCBI Bookshelf. AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 minutes min to 8 hours h. The three AEGLs are defined as follows:. However, the effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure.
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Volatile substances drug profile
Butane is a highly flammable, colourless, odourless gas. Butane is a hydrocarbon, found in household and industrial products and is potentially intoxicating if deliberately inhaled. Butane is commonly misused by being inhaled directly through the mouth either from cigarette lighter refills, canisters or aerosol sprays. Butane is a central nervous system depressant which slows down the activity of the brain, affecting physical and mental responses. When butane is inhaled the fumes are absorbed rapidly through the lungs into the bloodstream.
This model is based on the mass, energy and momentum conservation equations for a homogeneous refrigerant flow under different inlet conditions, such as subcooled, saturated and two phase flow. The effects of the inlet pressure bar , inlet vapor quality 0. The results showed that the present model predicts data that are very close to the available experimental data in the literature with an average error of 2. The pressure of the hydrocarbon mixture HCM decreases, while its vapor quality, specific volume and Mach number increase along the capillary tube. Also, the results indicated that the capillary tube length is largely dependent on the capillary tube diameter. Other parameters such as mass flow rate, inlet pressure, subcooling degree or quality and relative roughness influence the capillary tube length in that order. The capillary tube length as a function of the significant parameters is presented in equation form.
Prolonged inhalation of gas butane induced mostly neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We reported two very rare cases of acute rhabdomyolysis caused by accidental prolonged inhalation of butane. The early diagnosis and the symptomatic treatment were associated with favourable evolution in the two cases. The mechanism of this complication is discussed and compared with the literature. Meaudre, A.
Domestic products such as spray deodorants, glue, lighter refills and spray air fresheners can be used as drugs. Volatile substance use may be defined as the deliberate inhalation of volatile compounds to produce psychoactive effects. These compounds have few characteristics in common, other than their intoxication effects and the behavioural effects they produce. Such volatile substances are often referred to as inhalants, a term which encompasses a diverse group of psychoactive chemicals that are defined by the route of administration, rather than their mechanism of action on the central nervous system or psychoactive effects.