Russian composer. Yulian Aleksandrovich Skryabin. Russian Wikipedia. Scriabin Julian Kiev
|Published (Last):||27 June 2009|
|PDF File Size:||11.53 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||10.98 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Later in his career, independently of Arnold Schoenberg , Scriabin developed a substantially atonal and much more dissonant musical system, which accorded with his personal brand of mysticism. He is considered by some to be the main Russian Symbolist composer. Scriabin was one of the most innovative and most controversial of early modern composers.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia said of Scriabin that "no composer has had more scorn heaped on him or greater love bestowed. However, Scriabin's importance in the Russian and then Soviet musical scene, and internationally, drastically declined after his death.
According to his biographer Bowers, "No one was more famous during their lifetime, and few were more quickly ignored after death. His father Nikolai Aleksandrovich Scriabin — , then a student at the Moscow State University , belonged to a modest noble family founded by Scriabin's great-grandfather Ivan Alekseevich Scriabin, a simple soldier from Tula who made a brilliant military career and was granted hereditary nobility in She belonged to the ancient dynasty that traced its history back to Rurik ; its founder, Semyon Feodorovich Yaroslavskiy nicknamed Schetina from the Russian schetina meaning stubble , was the great-grandson of Vasili, Prince of Yaroslavl.
After her death Nikolai Scriabin completed tuition in the Turkish language in St. Petersburg 's Institute of Oriental Languages and left for Turkey.
Scriabin's father would later remarry, giving Scriabin a number of half-brothers and sisters. His aunt Lyubov his father's unmarried sister was an amateur pianist who documented Sasha's early life until the time he met his first wife.
As a child, Scriabin was frequently exposed to piano playing, and anecdotal references describe him demanding that his aunt play for him. Apparently precocious, Scriabin began building pianos after being fascinated with piano mechanisms. He sometimes gave away pianos he had built to house guests. Lyubov portrays Scriabin as very shy and unsociable with his peers, but appreciative of adult attention. Another anecdote tells of Scriabin trying to conduct an orchestra composed of local children, an attempt that ended in frustration and tears.
He would perform his own amateur plays and operas with puppets to willing audiences. He studied the piano from an early age, taking lessons with Nikolai Zverev , a strict disciplinarian, who was also the teacher of Sergei Rachmaninoff and other piano prodigies concurrently, though Scriabin was not a pensioner like Rachmaninoff.
In he enlisted in the Second Moscow Cadet Corps. As a student, he became friends with the actor Leonid Limontov, although in his memoirs Limontov recalls his reluctance to become friends with Scriabin, who was the smallest and weakest among all the boys and was sometimes teased due to his stature. He became a noted pianist despite his small hands, which could barely stretch to a ninth. He eventually regained the use of his hand. In he graduated with the Little Gold Medal in piano performance, but did not complete a composition degree because of strong differences in personality and musical opinion with Arensky whose faculty signature is the only one absent from Scriabin's graduation certificate and an unwillingness to compose pieces in forms that did not interest him.
In Scriabin made his debut as a pianist in St. Petersburg, performing his own works to positive reviews. During the same year, Mitrofan Belyayev agreed to pay Scriabin to compose for his publishing company he published works by notable composers such as Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov. That year he became a teacher at the Moscow Conservatory and began to establish his reputation as a composer. For a period of five years, Scriabin was based in Moscow, during which time the first two of his symphonies were conducted by his old teacher Safonov.
According to later reports, between and Scriabin envisioned writing an opera. He talked a lot about it and expounded its ideas in the course of normal conversation. The work would center around a nameless hero, a philosopher-musician-poet. Among other things, he would declare: I am the apotheosis of world creation. I am the aim of aims, the end of ends. By the winter of , Scriabin and his wife had relocated to Switzerland, where he began work on the composition of his Symphony No.
While living in Switzerland, Scriabin was separated legally from his wife, with whom he had had four children. With the financial assistance of a wealthy sponsor, he spent several years travelling in Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium and the United States, working on more orchestral pieces, including several symphonies. He was also beginning to compose "poems" for the piano, a form with which he is particularly associated.
In , he settled in Paris with his family and was involved with a series of concerts organized by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev , who was actively promoting Russian music in the West at the time. In he returned to Russia permanently, where he continued to compose, working on increasingly grandiose projects. For some time before his death he had planned a multi-media work to be performed in the Himalaya Mountains, that would cause a so-called " armageddon ," "a grandiose religious synthesis of all arts which would herald the birth of a new world.
Nemtin eventually completed a second portion "Mankind" and a third "Transfiguration" , and his entire two-and-a-half-hour completion was recorded by Ashkenazy with the Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin for Decca. Several late pieces published during the composer's lifetime are believed to have been intended for Mysterium , like the Two Dances Op. Scriabin was small and reportedly frail throughout his life.
In , at the age of 43, he died in Moscow from sepsis as a result of a sore on his upper lip. He had mentioned the sore as early as while in London. It was the first time he had played music other than his own in public and his efforts helped secure Scriabin's reputation as a great composer. Rather than seeking musical versatility, Scriabin was happy to write almost exclusively for solo piano and for orchestra.
Scriabin's music progressively evolved over the course of his life, although the evolution was very rapid and especially brief when compared to most composers. Aside from his earliest pieces, the mid- and late-period pieces use very unusual harmonies and textures.
The development of Scriabin's style can be traced in his ten piano sonatas : the earliest are composed in a fairly conventional late- Romantic manner and reveal the influence of Chopin and sometimes Franz Liszt , but the later ones are very different, the last five being written without a key signature.
Many passages in them can be said to be atonal , though from through , "tonal unity was almost imperceptibly replaced by harmonic unity. Scriabin's first period is usually described as going from his earliest pieces up to his Second Symphony Op. The works from the first period adhere to the romantic tradition, thus employing the common practice period harmonic language. However, Scriabin's voice is present from the very beginning, in this case by his fondness of the dominant function  and added tone chords.
Scriabin's early harmonic language was especially fond of the thirteenth dominant chord, usually with the 7th, 3rd, and 13th spelled in fourths.
However, despite these tendencies, slightly more dissonant than usual for the time, all these dominant chords were treated according to the traditional rules: the added tones resolved to the corresponding adjacent notes, and the whole chord was treated as a dominant, fitting inside tonality and diatonic , functional harmony.
During this period, Scriabin's music becomes more chromatic and dissonant, yet still mostly adhering to traditional functional tonality.
As dominant chords are more and more extended, they gradually lose their tensive function. Scriabin wanted his music to have a radiant, shining feeling to it, and achieved this by raising the number of chord tones. During this time, complex forms like the mystic chord are hinted at, but still show their roots as Chopinesque harmony.
At first, the added dissonances are resolved conventionally according to voice leading, but the focus slowly shifts towards a system in which chord coloring is most important. Later on, fewer dissonances on the dominant chords are resolved. According to Sabbanagh, "the dissonances are frozen, solidified in a color-like effect in the chord"; the added notes become part of it.
According to Samson, while the sonata-form of Scriabin's Sonata No. He also argues that the Poem of Ecstasy and Vers la flamme "find a much happier co-operation of 'form' and 'content ' " and that later sonatas, such as No. According to Claude Herdon, in Scriabin's late music "tonality has been attenuated to the point of virtual extinction, although dominant sevenths , which are among the strongest indicators of tonality, preponderate.
The progression of their roots in minor thirds or diminished fifths [ Varvara Dernova argues that "The tonic continued to exist, and, if necessary, the composer could employ it [ Most of the music of this period is built on the acoustic and octatonic scales, as well as the nine-note scale resulting from their combination. Both would influence his music and musical thought. During —10 he lived in Brussels , becoming interested in Jean Delville 's Theosophist philosophy and continuing his reading of Helena Blavatsky.
Theosophist and composer Dane Rudhyar wrote that Scriabin was "the one great pioneer of the new music of a reborn Western civilization, the father of the future musician", and an antidote to "the Latin reactionaries and their apostle, Stravinsky " and the "rule-ordained" music of " Schoenberg 's group. His ideas on reality seem similar to Platonic and Aristotelian theory though much less coherent. The main sources of his philosophy can be found in his numerous unpublished notebooks, one in which he famously wrote "I am God".
As well as jottings there are complex and technical diagrams explaining his metaphysics. Scriabin also used poetry as a means in which to express his philosophical notions, though arguably much of his philosophical thought was translated into music, the most recognizable example being the Ninth Sonata "the Black Mass".
Though Scriabin's late works are often considered to be influenced by synesthesia , a condition wherein one experiences sensation in one sense in response to stimulus in another, it is doubted that Scriabin actually experienced this. Indeed, influenced also by the doctrines of theosophy, he developed his system of synesthesia toward what would have been a pioneering multimedia performance: his unrealized magnum opus Mysterium was to have been a grand week-long performance including music, scent, dance, and light in the foothills of the Himalayas Mountains that was somehow to bring about the dissolution of the world in bliss.
In his autobiographical Recollections, Sergei Rachmaninoff recorded a conversation he had had with Scriabin and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov about Scriabin's association of colour and music. Rachmaninoff was surprised to find that Rimsky-Korsakov agreed with Scriabin on associations of musical keys with colors; himself skeptical, Rachmaninoff made the obvious objection that the two composers did not always agree on the colours involved.
Both maintained that the key of D major was golden-brown; but Scriabin linked E-flat major with red-purple, while Rimsky-Korsakov favored blue. However, Rimsky-Korsakov protested that a passage in Rachmaninoff's opera The Miserly Knight accorded with their claim: the scene in which the Old Baron opens treasure chests to reveal gold and jewels glittering in torchlight is written in D major.
Scriabin told Rachmaninoff that "your intuition has unconsciously followed the laws whose very existence you have tried to deny. While Scriabin wrote only a small number of orchestral works, they are among his most famous, and some are performed frequently.
It was played like a piano, but projected coloured light on a screen in the concert hall rather than sound. Most performances of the piece including the premiere have not included this light element, although a performance in New York City in projected colours onto a screen. It has been claimed erroneously that this performance used the colour-organ invented by English painter A. Wallace Rimington when in fact it was a novel construction supervised personally and built in New York specifically for the performance by Preston S.
Miller, the president of the Illuminating Engineering Society. On 22 November , the work was fully realized making use of the composer's color score as well as newly developed laser technology on loan from Yale's Physics Department, by John Mauceri and the Yale Symphony Orchestra and designed by Richard N.
Gould, who projected the colors into the auditorium that were reflected by the Mylar vests worn by the audience. The piece was reprised at Yale once again in as conceived by Anna M.
Scriabin's original colour keyboard, with its associated turntable of coloured lamps, is preserved in his apartment near the Arbat in Moscow, which is now a museum  dedicated to his life and works.
Scriabin himself made recordings of 19 of his own works, using 20 piano rolls, six for the Welte-Mignon , and 14 for Ludwig Hupfeld of Leipzig. Those recorded for Hupfeld include the piano sonatas Op. Pianists who have performed Scriabin to particular critical acclaim include Vladimir Sofronitsky , Vladimir Horowitz and Sviatoslav Richter.
Sofronitsky never met the composer, as his parents forbade him to attend a concert due to illness. The pianist said he never forgave them; but he did marry Scriabin's daughter Elena.
Photo added by Bobb Edwards. He was the son of composer Alexander Scriabin, who gave him his first piano lessons. After his father's death in Julian began composing seriously and was considered to be a prodigy. He drowned in a boating accident at the age of Julian Scriabin's precocious "Four Preludes" for piano survive; the pieces have been recorded several times and are available on CD. Thank you for fulfilling this photo request. An email has been sent to the person who requested the photo informing them that you have fulfilled their request.
He was himself a promising composer and pianist , but he died at the age of eleven in mysterious circumstances. Alexander Scriabin, famous for his innovative piano compositions, had seven children: Rima, Yelena, [notes 1] Maria [notes 2] and Leo from his first marriage to Vera Ivanovna Isakovich; and Ariadna , Julian, and Marina from his relationship with Tatyana Fyodorovna Schloezer Shlyotser. His eldest daughter Rima — and his son Leo — both died at the age of seven. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Skriabina, p. Categories : births deaths 20th-century classical composers Accidental deaths in Russia Accidental deaths in Ukraine Child classical musicians Deaths by drowning Russian classical composers Russian male classical composers Russian people of German descent 20th-century Russian male musicians.
More by Robert-Alexander Bohnke