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Ikan Kerapu Epinephelus sp umumnya dikenal dengan istilah "groupers" dan merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan yang mempunyai peluang baik dipasarkan domestik maupun padar internasional dan selain itu nilai jualnya cukup tinggi. Ikan Kerapu mempunyai sifat-sifat yang menguntungkan untuk dibudidayakan karena pertumbuhannya cepat dan dapat diproduksi massal untuk melayani permintaan pasar ikan kerapu dalam keadaan hidup.

Berkembangnya pasaran ikan kerapu hidup karena adanya perubahan selera konsumen dari ikan mati atau beku kepada ikan dalam keadaan hidup, telah mendorong masyarakat untuk memenuhi permintaan pasar ikan kerapu melalui usaha budidaya.

Budidaya ikan kerapu telah dilakukan dibeberapa tempat di Indonesia, namun dalam proses pengembangannya masih menemui kendala, karena keterbatasan benih. Selama ini para petani nelayan masih mengandalkan benih alam yang sifatnya musiman. Namun sejak tahun ikan kerapu macan Epinephelus fuscoguttatus sudah dapat dibenihkan, Balai Budidaya Laut Lampung sebagai unit Pelaksana Teknis Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan, telah melakukan upaya untuk menghasilkan benih melalui pembenihan buatan manipulasi lingkungan dan penggunaan hormon.

Bak penetasan telur yang sekaligus merupakan bak pemeliharaan larva perlu dijaga kualitas airnya dengan penambahan phytoplankton Chlorella, dengan kepadatan 5. Phytoplankton akan menggeliminir pembusukkan yang ditimbulkan oleh telur yang tidak menetas dan sisa cangkang telur yang ditinggalkan.

Pembersihan dasar bak dengan cara penyiponan dilakukan pada hari pertama dengan maksud untuk membuang sisa-sisa telur yang tidak menetas dan cangkang telur. Penggantian air dilakukan setiap hari dan dengan bertambahnya umur larva, maka volume air yang perlu diganti juga semakin banyak.

Prosentase pengantian air selama pemeliharaan larve kerapu dapat dilihat pada gambar 4. Gambar 4. Prosentase Penggantian Air. Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition OCR software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version. What is aquaculture. Objectives of aquaculture. Comparative efficiency of aquaculture as a means of protein production. History of aquaculture, its present organisation and status. History of aquaculture 4. Organisation of aquaculture 4.

Characteristics of aquaculture and its present status. Different kinds of aquaculture. Pond culture. In static freshwater ponds 5. In brackishwater ponds.

Running water culture 5. Culture in recirculatory systems 5. Culture in rice fields 5. Aquaculture in raceways: cages, pens and enclosures.

Rigid structures 5. Flexible structures 5. Floating fish cages 5. Cages with rigid framework. Cages with flexible framework 5. Merits of cage culture 5. Limitation of cage culture. Monoculture 5. Polyculture 5. Cost-benefit of Certain Aquaculture systems. Suggestions for broader reading. Appendix I: M. Aquaculture - Course listing and unit load.

The neglect of fish was perhaps mainly owing to man's unfamiliarity with the watery environment; what is under water is not easily seen as well. Man could commune with his terrestrial cohabitants and make them his pets and beasts of burden. He could watch his land live-stock and easily recognize a sick cow or chicken. Even when an attempt is made to learn how the fish performed he could not comprehend it easily. Add to it the loose though expansive membrane with many holes and slots, spread on the breathing apparatus of the fish.

Fish has to fight continuosly against loss and gain of some of its body contents through this gill surface, at times pitiably difficult and at times fascile and ingenious. The major task for the aquaculturist is to breach this gap in knowledge to know his animal before he really succeeds in rearing it to his advantage. He has to know the biological characteristics and potentials of the aquatic organism he wants to grow and also the nature of its environment i. Look at the fish in the wild - try to capture them; it is difficult, but much easier than to rear them to adult size and make them reproduce, under controlled conditions.

A fish pond, a race way, a cage or pen is only an extension of this concept but the problem becomes more complex. How does fish respond behaviourally in captivity? How many of what size and species could be put together to live and could be induced to produce protein economically?

What are the optimal requirements for nutrition and growth, which could change with the age and kind of fish? The kinds are so diverse that one could say the difference between two fishes, the tilapia and the trout, is much more than the difference between the cow and the pig. The mammals and birds keep the same body temperature constantly, but that of fish changes with that of the environment - an advantage in the tropical environment since all the rate functions including growth and production would be high, to make the tropical pond a very effective system for mass protein production, as is indeed proven.

It becomes obvious that the skills needed in aquaculture are multi-disciplinary. Biology of the fish is the beginning; biochemistry and water chemistry must be thoroughly known; the economic ways of constructting ponds and enclosures should be known; the need for fertilizers and feed should be precisely known. The growth processes, as well as those of death - causes and prevention, should be known.

Harvest methodologies and preservation and marketing needs and economics should be known too. Propagation of fish in captivity is an elementary necessity in aquaculture for one cannot always obtain sufficient fish seeds from the wild to meet the demands. The whole process of breeding and nursing fish, according to nutritional requirements, should also be known. To take a lesson from the well-trodden path of the agriculturist, the genetics of the fish for production of improved strains and hybrids should also be known.

These are some of the selected areas in aquaculture which need to be studied and understood. Let us hope that as time progresses man and fish would come to know each other as intimately as man and his domestic animals - the dog and the cat and the cow and the pig. The fish cannot wink, but can watch you with its unshut eye and lead you to a world of its own, man can benefit by it - that is aquaculture.

Our course for Senior aquaculturists at ARAC deals with several aspects of aquaculture just mentioned. The 20 odd subjects dealt with in the course and their credit loads are indicated in Appendix I.

This is shown as a preview to what you would study in the next 12 months and also to let you know from the beginning the multi-disciplinary nature of aquaculture. An understanding of the principles of operation of capture and culture fisheries helps to throw light on the definition of aquaculture.

The expressions capture and culture fisheries are self-explanatory. In the former, one reaps the aquatic harvest without having to sow, whereas, in the latter, one has to sow the seed, nurse it, tend it, rear it and harvest it when it grows to marketable size. Examples of capture fisheries are the natural fisheries of the seas, estuaries, rivers, lagoons, large lakes etc.

Pen culture, cage culture, culture in running waters, in recirculating systems and in reconditioned water are special types of aquaculture.

All shades of intermediate stages between true capture and culture fisheries exist such as in man-made-lakes, which are stocked extraneously but where no manuring, fertilizing and feeding are generally done.

The principles of management of capture and culture fisheries are very different from each other. In the case of capture fisheries one has to attempt to harvest maximum sustainable yield by regulating fishing effort and mesh after taking into account parameters of population dynamics such as rates of recruitment, natural and fishing mortalities, fish growth and size at which recruitment occurs.

Management of capture fisheries requires knowledge of the dynamics of the fish populations under exploitation. The extended exclusive economic zone of miles brings into focus the national and international complexities of regulating the capture fisheries of the seas and the oceans and apportionment of the marine harvest because fish populations do not abide by man-made boundaries.

In the case of culture fisheries, no detailed knowledge of the population dynamics of the cultivated finfish or shell fish is involved. Here, one has to breed, if one technically can, the chosen fish under controlled conditions, if it does not breed naturally, and develop fish husbandry practices so as to be able to formulate economically viable technologies.

For effective aquaculture, one has to gain familiarity and control water quality to enhance its biological productivity; one has to understand fish nutrition so as to be able to formulate nutritionally balanced fish diet; one has to delve deep into fish genetics so as to be able to evolve new varieties and strains which bestow commercial advantages to the product in terms of superior growth rate, nutritive value, bonelesness, taste, odour etc.

Aquaculture is organised production of a crop in the aquatic medium. The crop may be that of an animal or a plant. Naturally, the organism cultured has to be ordained by nature as aquatic. During the last decade or so there has been noticeable a global upsurge for aquaculture. Some of the factors which have contributed to the upsurge are:.

Increased and continuously rising cost of fishing operations due to steep rise of the price of fuel. Fear of reduction in marine fish landings by countries that depend on fishing in the territorical waters of other countries as a result of the new laws of the sea of miles exclusive economic zone.

A persistent demand in most developed countries for high cost species like shrimps and prawns. This has greatly promoted interest in aquaculture in countries that wish to increase their foreign exchange earnings. The behaviour of one of the world's most productive capture fisheries viz. Shortage of fertilizers in most developing countries and their allocation to agriculture.

In this respect, there is a measure of conflict between agriculture and aquaculture. Increasing prices and even the availability of fish meal, which, as stated earlier, is the ingredient of most fish-feeds.


Kerapu macan

Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. Morfologi Kerapu tikus bertubuh agak pipih dan warna dasar kulit tubuhnya abu-abu dengan bintik-bintik hitam diseluruh permukaan tubuh Gambar 1. Kepala berukuran kecil dengan moncong agak meruncing. Karena kepala yang kecil mirip bebek, maka jenis ini popular sebagai kerapu bebek.


Introduction to Aquaculture

Kerapu kayu Epinephelus tauvina adalah ikan yang hidup dalam kawasan yang bertebar dari Laut Merah sampai ke Afrika Selatan di sebelah barat, dan dari Jepang sampai ke Australia di sebelah timur. Kepala dan badannya berwarna abu-abu atau coklat kehijau-hijauan muda dengan noda bundar yang warnanya bisa dari merah jingga sampai coklat tua. Sejumlah noda hitam dapat terlihat pada badannya di bawah belakang sirip punggungnya. Lima garis vertikal yang lebih hitam bisa juga terdapat pada badannya. Kakap kayu hidup di kawasan air jernih dengan karang , pada kedalaman 1— m. Pakannya adalah ikan yang lebih kecil. Jenis serupa adalah Epinephelus corallicola dan Epinephelus howlandi , yang badannya lebih pendek dan nodanya lebih mepet.

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