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During a period of 60 years he wrote over books and several thousand letters claiming to use a process known as " psychography ". Books based on old letters and manuscripts were published posthumously, bringing the total number of books to The books written by Chico covered a vast range of topics from religion, philosophy, historical romances and novels, Portuguese Literature, poetry, and science, as well as thousands of letters intended to inform, console and uplift the families of deceased persons during his psychographic sessions.
His books sold an estimated 50 million copies and the revenue generated by it was totally channeled into charity work. Xavier called his spiritual guide Emmanuel , who according to Xavier, lived in ancient Rome as Senator Publius Lentulus , was reincarnated in Spain as Father Damien , and later as a professor at the Sorbonne. Xavier claimed he was a channel for the work of the spirits and that he was not able to produce any miracle such as healing people. He often mentioned he could not contact a deceased person unless the spirit was willing to be contacted.
His appearances on TV talk shows in the late s and early s helped to establish Spiritism Doctrine as one of the major philosophies professed in Brazil with more than 5 million followers. Xavier's popularity remained unchanged in Brazil throughout his life.
Despite his health problems he kept working up to his death, on June 30, in Uberaba. In , a movie biography entitled Chico Xavier was released in Brazil. Directed by Daniel Filho , the film dramatized Xavier's life.
According to biographers, his mediunity first appeared when he was only four years old. His father was talking to a lady about pregnancy and he began stating facts about sciences.
He claimed he could hear and see spirits. His mother died when he was 5 years old. He claimed to talk with his mother's spirit for some years. People thought that he was crazy for several years because he talked with spirits.
Francisco was then, seven years old. The couple had yet, six more children. Francisco was enrolled in a public school. Within this period, the spirit of his mother stopped making contact with him.
Francisco, started to work very young in order to help with the expenses at home, he would sell vegetables produced at home. At school, as well as in church, Francisco's claimed paranormal power constantly would put him into trouble. Once, while in his fourth year of primary school, he claimed to have seen a man who had dictated all his school essays, but no one seemed to have given him any credits; and not even the teacher seemed to have cared about it.
One of his memorial school compositions on the centenary of the independence of Brazil won an honorable mention in a state contest.
In he faced skepticism from colleagues and friends, who accused him of plagiarism, such accusation lasted all his life. Challenged to prove his gifts, Francisco was submitted to the challenge of improvising an essay with the help of a spirit about sand grain, the topic was chosen at that very moment, in which, he succeeded. Scared about the mediunity of the young boy, his father decides to hospitalize him.
Father Scarzelli; the Catholic priest examined him, and concluded that, hospitalizing the boy would be a mistake, since it was only "children's fantasy".
Scarzelli simply advised the family to restrict his reading he believed they were the reason for the fantasies and put him to work; Francisco, then, was hired to work in a textile factory, where he was submitted to rigorous discipline of extended working hours; which brought serious consequences that lasted for the rest of his life.
In , he finished primary school and never went back to school. He was hired as a sales clerk working extended hours. Although his catholic devotion and uncountable penances, apart from all restrictions imposed by the priest he confessed with; he never stopped having visions or communicating with spirits. In May his sister, Maria Xavier, was having mental disturbances, which many believed was caused by spiritual sources known as obsession Spiritism. This episode allowed Francisco to support his sister with his mediumship capacities and introduced him to the Spiritism Doctrine as well.
Simultaneously he allegedly received a new message from his mother in which she recommended him to accomplish all his duties and thoroughly study the books of Allan Kardec ; In June; Francisco founded the Spiritist Center Luiz Gonzaga, spiritist church in a wooden warehouse owned by his brother. In July, under the guidance of a so-called "benevolent spirit", he started to psychograph, writing seventeen pages.
Later, Xavier would claim that several deceased Poets had begun to manifest themselves through him, but they only started to identify themselves in That year was marked by the medium's "adulthood" and when he firstly met his spiritual Mentor Emmanuel, "Under a tree, near a water reservoir According to Chico his Mentor informed about his mission to psychograph a sequence of thirty books and to achieve such a task he would require 3 mandatory conditions: "discipline, discipline and discipline".
Emmanuel instructed him to be loyal to Jesus and Kardec, even if it was against his religious basis. Brazilian Spiritualist Federation The compilation of poetry dictated by spirits of Brazilian and Portuguese poets achieved enormous impact in the Brazilian press and public opinion, and yet caused strong polemic among the ones involved with Brazilian literature, whose opinions were divided between recognition and accusations of pastiche.
The impact increased even more when it was revealed that the books had been written by a "humble clerk" from a warehouse in the countryside of Minas Gerais Brazilian state where the medium was born , who had barely finished primary school. It is said that the spirit of his mother advised him not to respond to the criticism. The copyrights of all his books were kindly granted to FEB. Still at the same period, an ocular cataract was found, problem which he had to live with for the rest of his life.
The spirits and his mentors, Emmanuel and Bezerra de Menezes , instructed him to be treated with the resources of human medicine and told him not to count on any kind of privileges from the spirits. At the same time; a long refusal of gifts and honors started and lasted all his life, as an example: Fred Figner granted Francisco a huge amount of money in his will; which was promptly granted to FEB; by the medium.
As well as notoriety, the criticism from people who tried to discredit him strongly persisted. Chico Xavier said that also spiritual foes tried to involve him into negative fluids and temptations, apart from all living people,. Souto Maior Brazilian journalist reports an attempted of "lynching by spirits", as well as an episode which naked girls tried to seduce the medium in his bathtub. Note that; in both episodes there are common narrative aspects to the so-called "proof", commonly mentioned in stories of holiness.
The medium's defense was supported by FEB, further resulting in the classic A Psicografia Perante os Tribunais, the psychography in the view of court written by the lawyer Miguel Timponi.
It is important to highlight that; along his career as a public worker; there is no record of any absence from work. In , one of the most popular books in Brazilian spiritist literature was published, the novel titled Nosso Lar , the best seller and most disclosed from the medium's extensive psychographic writings; which became a movie of the same name in During that time, the fame of Chico Xavier Francisco's nickname was increasing, more and more people looked for him in search of healing and messages, transforming the small town of Pedro Leopoldo into an informal center of pilgrimage.
According to Francisco's biographer Ubiratan Machado, " In , the Medium was involved in a controversial case due to the accusations coming from his nephew, Amauri Pena, son of Francisco's sister. The nephew was psychographic Medium and announced to the press to be a fraud, a very capable impostor, extending his declaration to his uncle Xavier. Chico denied any wrongdoing and any proximity or involvement with the nephew.
Later remorseful by the damage he caused to his uncle's reputation he asked for forgiveness and dropping all the accusations he previously made. The Reporters pretended to be foreigners using false names in order to test whether Chico was a fraud; Later when Nasser and Manzon arrived home after the interview, they were surprised, as reported by Nasser in an interview with TV Cultura in "From dawn, the Manzon called me and said, 'have you seen the book that Chico Xavier gave to us?
I said no. He had made a similar dedication for Manzon. For things like this, that I am very afraid to get involved in Spiritism issues. At that time, Chico Xavier met the young student of Medicine and medium Waldo Vieira ; together they psychographed several books; until their abruption some years later. In , Francisco moved to Uberaba , where he lived until the end of his days.
He continued psychographing several books, approaching topics that were priority in the 60's; such as, sex , drugs , youth issues, technology , space travels among others. Uberaba then, became an informal center of pilgrimage, with thousands of people arriving every day; people hoping to make contact with deceased relatives. At that time; books of "messages" became popular; letters dictated by spirits of regular people to their family members; proceeding as well with constant campaigns of food and clothing distribution to the poor people around the town.
See Pinga-fogo. In the beginning of ; Chico took part on the popular nationwide interview TV program called "Pinga Fogo" Dripping Fire which reached extremely high levels of audience throughout the country.
In the same year; besides the cataract and lungs problems, Francisco developed a heart condition called angina. In he founded the spiritst centre "Casa da Prece" in Uberaba. At that time, his fame extended to other parts of the world, with several books translated into other languages, as well as adaptations for soap operas versions. By the end of , the medium had already psychographed more than four hundreds books.
At that time; it was estimated that approximately fifty millions of spiritist books were circulating in Brazil, from which; fifteen million of them were attributed to Chico Xavier and twelve millions to Kardec SANTOS, In , the American tabloid National Examiner published an article saying, "Ghost writers make novelist a millionaire" The article was vaunted in Brazil by the extinct news magazine; revista Manchete, titled as Secretary of Ghosts, where it said that, according to National Examiner information; the Brazilian medium had made twenty million dollars as a "Secretary of Ghosts".
Manchete magazine proceeded saying: "According to the newspapers, he is the first one to have admitted that the books he had produced were by 'ghost-writers', "literally ghosts'", concluding that; Chico simply transcribes psychographed books through more than deceased and buried writers and poets. Spiritist Federation from the state of Sergipe In the document; the entities representing the spiritism in Brazil devoted their gratitude and respect for the medium "for his intense and extended works, for the example of life dedicated to studies and fraternity, disclosure and practices of spiritism, for the spiritual and material guidelines, assistance and help to the neighbor".
The medium died at the age of 92, due to a cardio respiratory arrest in , According to friends and close relatives, Chico had asked God to take him away in a day which all Brazilian people were very happy and the country under some kind of celebration; [ citation needed ] this way, no one would be sad with his departure.
In , appointed for the Nobel Peace Prize, when his name gathered 2 million signatures for submission. In , the Government of the State of Minas Gerais established the "Commendation of Peace Chico Xavier", award which is annually awarded to individuals or legal entities who work for peace and social well-being. In , the Brazilian Government gave the name "Chico Xavier" for a passage of an important highway of the country, BR In , his centenary has been marked by numerous celebrations in Brazil, like two feature films and a special postage stamp.
The city of Uberaba Town where Chico lived recently started the construction of a memorial in his honor. On the semifinal of the program he disputed against Ayrton Senna , Brazilian formula 1 racer receiving At the end of the program, Chico competed against Santos Dumont founder of the aviation in Brazil and Princess Isabel responsible for the abolition of slavery in Brazil ; but, he had been the one elected to become "the greatest Brazilian of all times" with According to Mori the staff at his Spiritist Center in Brazil would help him by gathering information about his clients and faking psychic letters.
Chico Xavier wrote most of allegedly psychographic books. He never admitted to be the author of any of his books. He affirmed he would only reproduce whatever the spirits dictated to him. Being the reason for why he would never accept the money attained from selling his books. He also transcribed around ten thousand letters allegedly from the dead to their families.
The letters were declared legitimate by many people, and some of the letters were used as evidence in four criminal trials. He is the most read author from Latin America note: year of Through the decades, Chico produced thousands of psychographed letters for desperate parents and mothers who came to him in order to receive messages from their deceased sons and daughters.
One electroencephalogram study conducted during a mediumnistic trance by Dr.
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Translation of "além-túmulo" in English
Parnaso de Além-Túmulo