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Hyperostosis frontalis interna and androgen suppression. Although hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI has been documented in the medical literature for over years, its etiology remains undetermined. It is generally assumed to be associated with hormonal disturbances of the gonads. The aim of this study was to examine the association between androgen deprivation and development of HFI in males. Two groups of males over years old were compared: a control group that included healthy males, 45 suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy BPH and a study group of males with prostate cancer: 67 who received complete androgen block treatment, and 60 who received different treatments or none at all. It was found that males who received a complete androgen block manifested significantly higher prevalence of HFI compared to healthy males.

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Hyperostosis frontalis interna and androgen suppression. Although hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI has been documented in the medical literature for over years, its etiology remains undetermined. It is generally assumed to be associated with hormonal disturbances of the gonads. The aim of this study was to examine the association between androgen deprivation and development of HFI in males.

Two groups of males over years old were compared: a control group that included healthy males, 45 suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy BPH and a study group of males with prostate cancer: 67 who received complete androgen block treatment, and 60 who received different treatments or none at all.

It was found that males who received a complete androgen block manifested significantly higher prevalence of HFI compared to healthy males. However, no significant difference in HFI prevalence was found between males suffering from BPH and healthy males or males with prostate cancer who had not received a complete androgen block. A positive association between length of hormonal treatment and manifestation of HFI was shown. It can be concluded that BPH does not promote development of HFI; males who are hormonally treated for prostate cancer are at a higher risk of developing HFI compared to healthy males; the longer the duration of hormonal treatment, the higher the risk of developing HFI.

Muscular system in interna of Peltogaster paguri Rhizocephala: Peltogastridae. Rhizocephalan parasites have a peculiar life cycle, and their adults lost almost all traits found usually in Crustacea.

Despite some data on anatomy and ultrastructure of interna of Peltogastridae, some crucial aspects of morphology are still unknown. For example, there is only one mentioning of myocytes found in interna of Rhizocephalans Sacculina carcini.

So we aimed at studying the muscular system of the interna of Peltogaster paguri using serial histological sectioning and fluorescent staining TRITC-labeled phalloidin with confocal microscopy.

Within the wall of the main trunk we found striated muscular fibers. The majority of these fibers form a unidirectional single spiral. There are additional small fibers that connect the coils of the large spiral.

The density of muscular fibers is highest near the externa stalk, and the number of muscle fibers decreases towards the distal part of the main trunk.

We suggest that such a muscular system could provide peristaltic movements of the main trunk and the transport of nutrients through the interna. All rights reserved. PubMed Central. Hyperostosis frontalis interna is an unexplained irregular thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone. Hyperostosis frontalis interna was first identified in by Morgagni as a symptom of a more generalized syndrome characterized by virilism and obesity.

Most current studies have shown hyperostosis frontalis interna to be a sex- and age-dependent phenomenon, and females manifest a significantly higher prevalence of hyperostosis frontalis interna than males.

In this article, the authors report the clinical case of hyperostosis frontalis interna in a 7-year-old child who had severe traumatic brain injury in the past; review the related literature; and discuss the clinical, radiological, and therapeutic features of this condition.

Identifying and classifying hyperostosis frontalis interna via computerized tomography. The aim of this study was to recognize the radiological characteristics of hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI and to establish a valid and reliable method for its identification and classification.

A reliability test was carried out on 27 individuals who had undergone a head computerized tomography CT scan. Intra-observer reliability was obtained by examining the images three times, by the same researcher, with a 2-week interval between each sample ranking. The inter-observer test was performed by three independent researchers. A validity test was carried out using two methods for identifying and classifying HFI: 46 cadaver skullcaps were ranked twice via computerized tomography scans and then by direct observation.

In conclusion, volume rendering is a reliable and valid tool for identifying HFI. The suggested three-scale classification is most suitable for radiological diagnosis of the phenomena. Considering the increasing awareness of HFI as an early indicator of a developing malady, this study may assist radiologists in identifying and classifying the phenomena.

Hyperostosis frontalis interna : criteria for sexing and aging a skeleton. Estimation of sex and age in skeletons is essential in anthropological and forensic medicine investigations. The aim of the current study was to examine the potential of hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI as a criterion for determining sex and age in forensic cases.

Macroscopic examination of the inner aspect of the frontal bone of skulls males and females aged 1 to , which had undergone a head computerized tomography scan, was carried out using the volume rendering technique. HFI was divided into two categories: minor and major. HFI is a sex- and age-dependent phenomena, with females manifesting significantly higher prevalence than males p Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac Charente, France.

The site of Marillac Charente, France has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains some of them with peri-mortem manipulations from lithofacies 2 Quina Mousterian. The study of one of the cranial fragments Marillac 3 revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI , remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone.

This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 Homo erectus , two other Neandertals Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5 , and several archaeological samples.

While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi , with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Transcriptome profiling of the theca interna in transition from small to large antral ovarian follicles. The theca interna layer of the ovarian follicle forms during the antral stage of follicle development and lies adjacent to and directly outside the follicular basal lamina.

It supplies androgens and communicates with the granulosa cells and the oocyte by extracellular signaling. Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed no clustering of the theca interna samples into groups depending on follicle size or subcategories of small follicles.

From the over 23, probe sets analysed, only 76 were differentially expressed between large and small healthy follicles. The most significant pathway affected from our analyses was found to be Wnt signaling, which was suppressed in large follicles via down-regulation of WNT2B and up-regulation of the inhibitor FRZB. These changes in the transcriptional profile could have been due to changes in cellular function or alternatively since the theca interna is composed of a number of different cell types it could have been due to any systematic change in the volume density of any particular cell type.

However, our study suggests that the transcriptional profile of the theca interna is relatively stable during antral follicle development unlike that of granulosa cells observed previously.

Thus both the cellular composition and cellular behavior of the theca interna and its contribution to follicular development appear to be relatively constant throughout the follicle growth phase examined.

Brief communication: unusual finding at Pueblo Bonito: multiple cases of hyperostosis frontalis interna. Hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI is a disease characterized by excess bone growth on the internal lamina of the frontal bone and, occasionally, other cranial bones. Although the disease is fairly common in modern populations, its etiology is poorly understood.

Hyperostosis frontalis interna has been identified in antiquity, primarily in the Old World, but with a much lower frequency than in modern groups. Twelve out of 37 adults with observable frontal bones exhibited HFI, ranging from mild to severe, including 11 females and one male.

This is the first published case report of HFI in archaeological remains from the New World having a frequency comparable with modern groups.

Most archaeological cases of HFI are isolated, so comparative data for multiple cases at one site are rare. The results of this study emphasize the importance of looking for HFI in archaeological remains, although it is rarely observed.

Possible genetic and environmental factors for the high frequency of HFI at Chaco Canyon are considered, but additional research is needed to discover the etiology and to better understand why HFI sometimes occurs at modern frequencies in ancient populations.

Ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna after dye-assisted membrane peeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna internal limiting membrane, ILM and to evaluate alterations to the retinal cell layers after membrane peeling with vital dyes.

Twenty-five patients 25 eyes who underwent macular hole surgery were included, whereby 12 indocyanine green ICG - and 13 brilliant blue G BBG -stained ILM were analyzed using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy.

Retinal cell fragments on the ILM were identified in both groups using immunohistochemistry. Thereby, the findings indicate that ICG permits an enhanced separation of the ILM from the underlying retina with less mechanical destruction. A possible explanation might be seen in the known photosensitivity of ICG, which induces a stiffening and shrinkage of the ILM but also generates retinal toxic metabolites. Karger AG, Basel. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna in some osteoarcheological series from Hungary.

Hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI is a generalised pathological condition with an unknown etiology and variable clinical association. It is characterized by excess bone growth and manifested on the inner table of the frontal bone, occasionally extending onto the temporals, parietals and the occipital. The etiology of HFI is uncertain: it may be an unknown genetic predisposition, a common environmental exposure, or special metabolic diseases. The purpose of the present study is to report cases of HFI in some osteoarcheological series from Hungary and to emphasize the importance of the investigation of HFI in ancient populations.

Twenty out of adults with observable frontal bones exhibited HFI, ranging from early to mid-type, including 15 females and 5 males. Some overgrowths with edges were blending into the endocranial surface, and some were prominently protruding from the surface. Advanced cases of HFI type C were observed after age years. Hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli — The famous castrato singer Farinelli — was exhumed by our research group in July for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains.

Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna HFI.

This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in female historic skeletal populations: Age, sex hormones and the impact of industrialization.

This analysis aims to investigate the impact of industrialization on the prevalence of Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna HFI , focusing on the roles of age and parity to examine the claim that longevity and changing reproductive patterns have led to increased rates in modern populations. A total of individuals from two documented London skeletal assemblages of the Industrial period were analyzed employing macroscopic observation, digital radiography and MicroCT scanning to establish the prevalence rates of HFI according to modern clinical standards.

Statistical analysis was also undertaken on a sub-sample of 51 females of post-menopausal age to identify any relationship between parity and HFI. The majority of cases of HFI were found in older females, reflecting clinical observations.

The prevalence rates of HFI corresponded well to those predicted from the proportion of old age females present within populations. Age was therefore shown to be a predominant factor in HFI presence. A plateau in HFI prevalence was noted from the age of years onwards.

No statistically significant relationship was found between parity and HFI. When recorded consistently, HFI was positively correlated with age and longevity but had also increased among old age females over time. Our results suggest that nulliparity co-occurs with HFI but is not a primary factor in its pathogenesis.

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