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We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Using different organic beds to produce vermicompost may influence on quality of vermicompost and its derived productions. Cow manure vermicompost had more desirable effect on many measured traits toward leaf meal and combination of leaf meal and cow manure vermicomposts. Vermiwash and vermicompost tea produced from cow manure vermicompost were at first order in majority of measured traits toward others.
Generally vermicompost which was richer in nutrient concentrations affected intensively quality of vermiwash and vermicompost tea produced from it. Industry of domestic animals production, especially industrial dairies have led to produce an enormous value of organic wastes so far. Cow manure and leaf meal are the most widely used as bed ingredients in greenhouse cultures in Iran. These organic wastes can be useful to apply in enhancing soil physicochemical properties and fertility Bansal and Kapoor One of the most important methods of processing organic wastes is recycling it as an organic fertilizer.
Not only this process reduces sanitary and environmental problems, but also a great value of organic fertilizer is produced during it. For this, using earthworms has a specific role to produce organic fertilizer from waste named vermicompost Suthar and Singh Vermicompost is an eco-friendly non-toxic that consumes low energy input for composting and is a recycled biological product.
The major advantages of vermicompost are desirable smell, balanced pH, low electrical conductivity, high cation exchange capacity, concentrations of available nutrients and plant growth promoting microorganisms. Vermicompost has been considered as a material containing plant growth promoting compounds including enzymes, different hormones and so many other unspecified compounds Atiyeh et al. Orozco et al. Because vermicomposting through earthworms is an eco biotechnological process that transforms energy rich and complex organic substances into a stabilized vermicompost Benitez et al.
These materials cause useful changes in plant growth bed which leads to increase plant growth. All useful changes occur because of mutual interaction between microorganisms and earthworms Gallardo-Lara and Nogales ; Marinari et al. Vermiwash is the liquid gathered by passing water among a path of soil containing active worms and organic bed. It is a combination of earthworm mucous discharges, nutrients, microorganisms and plant growth promoting materials Gopal et al.
Vermiwash is produced by different methods in which, it is assumed that microbial activities and nutrients are transformed from vermicompost into its extraction. This liquid partially comes from body of earthworm as worms body contains plenty of water and is rich in amino acids, vitamins, nutrients like nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, zinc, calcium, iron, and copper and some growth hormones like auxins and cytokines Suthar a.
There are some strong evidences proving that vermiwash have impressive benefits, but these benefits are dependant on quality of used substrate producing vermiwash Scheuerell and Mahaffee Vermiwash considers a biotic aqua fertilizer which is applied as pesticides and also contains plant essential nutrients. Vermiwash has anti-spawning effects on insects Zhu et al. Leaf nutrition with vermiwash obtained from municipal wastes improved the photosynthesis activity, plant physiology and performance Astaraei and Ivani Nath et al.
The results of Quail and Ibrahim indicated that for mung bean Vigna radiate L. Generally, vermicompost elutriate vermicompost tea is produced by placing a defined quantity of vermicompost into water and shaking it for a defined period of time. Vermicompost is the main component of vermicompost tea and the source and quality of used vermicompost is one of the main points in this regard Scheuerell and Mahaffee It was reported that the effects of vermicompost tea and vermicompost are the same Edris et al.
Unlike vermicompost, vermicompost tea can be applied on plant directly. Application of vermicompost tea as a foliar application causes to promote the growth of many healthy plants, increases plants sustainability against pests and diseases and accelerates degradation of toxic materials. Organic tea usage leads to increase in power and plant resistance toward bacteria and fungi diseases and this is due to existence of micro and macro-nutrients, hormones, vitamins, plant enzymes and also organic chelating factors which increase nutrients availability Merrill and McKeon Unlike vermicompost, diluted vermicompost tea is applied sometimes in soil and sometimes in foliar spray but its worth as a nutritional treatment has not been determined yet Gaskell et al.
Many liquid fertilizers and organic tea are capable of providing essential micronutrients which can be either injected to every irrigation system or used in foliar application Gaskell et al. Using different organic beds to produce vermicompost may influence on the quality of vermicompost and its derived productions.
This research aimed to assess the effect of different beds of vermicompost on quality of vermiwash and vermicompost tea obtained from it. Considering to existed the enormous value of cow manure and leaf meal, these two resources were selected in this research and the properties of vermicompost, vermiwash and vermicompost tea produced from them were compared with standard methods together in greenhouse condition.
In this experiment, considering the enormous value of cow manure and leaf meal, these two resources were selected. Cow manure and leaf meal were provided from animal husbandry station and green space at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran, respectively.
While preparing leaf meals, leaves are air-dried, and then ground and stored in sacks. To produce organic fertilizers, plastic containers were selected. A hole at the base of the each container drilled to fix a valve to it. Combinational bed was prepared with mixing leaf meal and cow manure at the ratio of by weight. Excessive latexes were exited via improvised valve below the container. Diver reported that there are two main methods producing vermicompost tea: the method of fermentation without aeration and the method along with aeration.
Through present experiment, vermicompost tea was produced by the method along with aeration. The ratio between water and vermicompost is important. With too much water, nutrients concentration reduces in whole solution and with too much compost, a large amount of nutrients available to the microorganisms and due to lack of oxygen, anaerobic conditions arise.
Many studies have used the method of Weltzien with ratios of — Considering the mentioned matters, vermicompost tea was produced providing a volumetric ratio of each vermicompost type and distilled water under aeration conditions provided by aquarium pomp. Numbers of earthworms in vermicompost obtained from three different organic beds were separated by light separation and hand sorting method through whole bed and then weighed.
The cocoons were sorted manually. To determine the properties of organic beds, vermicompost and vermicompost extracts were used from standard methods. Total nitrogen by the method of Micro-Kjeldahl Bremner and Mulvaney , total potassium using flame photometer Page et al.
Organic matter was estimated by the method of oxidation with chromic acid then titration with ferrous ammonium sulfate Nelson and Sommers A ratio of water to vermicompost suspension was used to determine pH Thomas and electrical conductivity Rhoades of vermicompost, however, for vermiwash and vermicompost tea the mentioned parameters were determined without diluting. Comparison of vermiwash and vermicompost tea obtained from types of vermicompost was conducted with a factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with three replications and three factors: two levels of leaf meal vermicompost vermiwash and vermicompost tea of leaf meal vermicompost , two levels of cow manure vermicompost vermiwash and vermicompost tea of cow manure vermicompost and two levels of combination of cow manure and leaf meal vermicompost vermiwash and vermicompost tea of combination of cow manure and leaf meal vermicompost.
Data analysis was performed by use of SAS 9. The results indicated that maximum worms number Also maximum The results of this research are in accordance with the results of Warman and Anglopez who investigated the effect of different types of feedstocks including kitchen paper waste, kitchen yard waste, cattle manure yard waste on the worm weight and concluded that worm weight in this feedstock was different and related to type of feedstock and durations of vermicomposting.
Studies showed that the kind, palatability and quality of food in term of their chemistry directly affected the survival growth rate and reproduction potential of earthworms Suthar b ; Deka et al. In this study, the drastic variation in worm number and weight in vermicompost types were probably related to palatability as well as chemical nature of the feeding stuff.
Based on results the highest EC 3. This result is well supported by the results of the previous works with different earthworm species during vermicomposting Karmegam and Daniel ; Raja Sekar and Karmegam ; Prakash and Karmegam According to the results, the highest and lowest quantity of pH which were 7.
It was observed that pH was reduced during the process of vermicomposting that is accordance with the results of John Paul et al. This reduction in pH value can be due to high concentration of CO 2 and organic acids produced by microorganisms and earthworm.
Biotic converting of organic matter to different intermediate materials, intensive mineralization of organic nitrogen to nitrate and nitrite and phosphorous to ortho-phosphates can be considered as other reasons of pH reduction Gunadi et al. Loh et al. The same results obtained by Garg and Kaushik Hartenstein stated that pH reduction is an important factor for maintenance of nitrogen, because this important nutrient volatilize in the form of ammoniac gas at alkaline pH.
The results showed that, the highest values of organic matter and carbon were related to the vermicompost produced from cow manure which were Because of the combined action of microorganisms and the earthworms, a large fraction of the organic matter in the primary beds is lost as CO 2 by the end of the vermicomposting period Jayakumar et al.
Govindan showed that the production of mucus and nitrogenous excrements enhanced the level of nitrogen in the vermicompost and it brought down the ratio of carbon to nitrogen which is most essential in the humification process. The nutrient level of vermicompost depends on the nature of the organic material used as food source for earthworms Garg et al.
The higher percentage of nutrients level in vermicompost produced from cow manure in comparison with leaf meal may be attributed to the higher mineralization caused by earthworm action along with microorganisms and quality of primary beds cow manure bed was richer than leaf meal bed. One reason for this result is the presence of carbon in the vermicompost for worms and microorganisms activity Jayakumar et al.
Losses in organic carbon might be responsible for N upgrading Sangwan et al. Increasing the level of P content during vermicomposting is may be due to mineralization of P due to phosphatases activity of microorganisms and earthworms Krishnamoorthy The increased level of Zn and Fe in vermicompost indicated accelerated mineralization with selective feeding by earthworms on materials containing these elements.
The increased level of nutrients in the vermicomposts was in accordance with the results of earlier works Suthar ; Jayakumar et al. The results indicated that the highest values of OC and OM In each vermicompost type, vermicompost tea had significantly higher OC and OM than vermiwash.
Also the highest value of pH was measured in the vermiwash produced from leaf meal vermicompost and the lowest value was observed through the vermicompost tea produced from cow manure. The highest 6. At each vermicompost type, the value of pH in the produced vermiwash was significantly more than vermicompost tea.
The highest value of EC 2. The same results obtained by Pant et al. It was notable that the nature of the process vermicompost tea was found to have more effect on the chemical properties, as shown by significant differences between the characteristics of the two types of vermicomposted materials leaf meal and cow manure. It is thought that the superior biochemical and physical properties of vermicompost over thermophilic compost are reflected in tea quality Edwards et al.
These results are in accordance with the results of Pant et al. Carballo et al. The results indicated that the total concentration maximum of N, P, K 2. There was no significant difference between N percent in the vermiwash produced from three types of vermicompost.
P concentration in vermicompost tea produced from leaf meal vermicompost and combination of cow manure and leaf meal vermicompost was significantly more than their vermiwash, while there was no significant difference between P concentration in the vermicompost tea and vermiwash produced from cow manure vermicompost.
Vermiwash Preparation Process, Benefits, Cost
Introduction: Hello farmers and gardeners, today we are back with a great information of Vermiwash preparation process, advanatages and application of Vermiwash. Vermiwash is a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds and is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. Vermiwash is a collection of excretory products and mucus secretions of earthworms along with micronutrients from the soil organic molecules. These are transported to the leaf, shoots and other parts of plants in the natural ecosystem. Vermiwash, if collected accurately, is a clear and transparent, pale yellow colored fluid.
What is Vermiwash